Troops at Upper Fort Garry

List based on Lawrence Barkwell, “Personalities of the 1869-70 Resistance, Laderoute’s Dicté,” Louis Riel Institute (2014);[1] cross-referenced, with ID#s from D.N. Sprague and R.P. Frye, The genealogy of the first Metis nation: the development and dispersal of the Red River Settlement, 1820-1900 (Winnipeg: Peguis, 1983); linked with home-parish pages on this site.

[1] Barkwell consulted the reminiscences of Jean Baptiste Laderoute, “Mémoires des troubles du Manitoba 1869-70,” Bulletin de la Société historique de Sainte-Boniface 4 (1997): 7-25. Laderoute’s journal of events at Red River during the Resistance, along with folk tales collected by his wife Marguerite St. Arnaud, were passed down to Celina Ladéroute Perron (1873-1963), Marie Anne Josephine Perron (1915-2001), and finally to Marie-Louise Perron, who had the memoirs published, and who reprinted one of the folk tales, “L’origine des canards gris,” in Metis Legacy Vol. II: Michif Culture, Heritage, and Folkways ed. L. Barkwell, L. Dorion and A. Hourie (Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute and Pemmican Publications, 2006), 46-54.

Jean Baptiste Arcand

Guard.

After the Canadian surrender at John C. Schultz’s drugstore at the Town of Winnipeg on 7 December 1869, Arcand was sent to guard it, along with Bidaux Delorme and Jean Laderoute.[2] It was cold, so the men attempted to start a fire. The stoves were not working and had to be shaken. The pipes fell and proved to be filled with guns and ammunition. There was enough gunpowder found in the pipes that, if the stoves had worked and ignited the powder, the guards would have been killed and the house destroyed.[3]

Jean Baptiste Arcand was Métis, of Baie St Paul Parish, lot 245, family #103 (born 20 December 1840 at St. François Xavier to #105 Joseph Arcand and Marie Vestro/ Vestreau dit Gesson; employed as HBC boat brigade Middleman, 1864-1866; listed as Freeman at Red River, 1866-1868), married Anne ‘Nancy’ McKay.

After the Resistance he settled with his family at St. Laurent on the South Saskatchewan and “was involved in the 1885 Resistance at Duck Lake with Dumont. His name appears as #253 on Philippe Garnot’s list of Resistance participants.”[4]

[2] See “Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Fort Garry, 1869,” this site.

[3] Laderoute, “Mémoires des troubles,” cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 3.

[4] HBCA “Arcand, Baptiste (b. ca. 1844) (fl. 1864–1868),” biographical sheets online; Barkwell, “Personalities,” 3.

Benjamin Beauchemin

Guard.

Described in the New Nation as “one of the French guards.” He was on duty when he “died suddenly at Fort Garry on the 25th inst. [February 1869] of disease of the heart. He was buried [27 February] with military honors in the Cemetery of St. Norbert.”[5] Beauchemin’s brother, André, and son, Jean Baptiste, were both active during the Resistance, being elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia.

Benjamin Beauchemin was Métis, of St Norbert Parish, lot 125-127?, family #194 (born 1804/ 1810/ 1813 to #202 André Millet dit Beauchemin and Charlotte Pelletier; brother to Hon. André Beauchemin, St. Vital), married Marie Parenteau (born  1815/ 1820 to #3801 Joseph Victor Parenteau and Suzanne). Their son was Hon. Baptiste/Jean-Baptiste Beauchemin, St. Charles.

[5] New Nation (4 March 1870), 3.

Baptiste Berard 

According to Laderoute, after the troops of the Comité National des Métis de la Rivière Rouge took Upper Fort Garry on 2 November 1869, Berard acted as provisioner — sharing his sugar and tea.[6]

Baptiste Berard was Métis, of St. Boniface Parish, lot 31-41, family #290 (born circa 1825 at Fort des Prairies to #297 Louis Berard and Catherine Hughes [daughter of James Hughes and Nan-Touche Corbeau]; brother-in-law to Paul Blondin [below]), married Helene Lavallee/ Martin (born 1824/ 1825 to #2814 Pierre Martin dit Lavallee and Marie Lambert). They had seven children between 1850 and 1863.

[6] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 1, 7.

Louis Blondeau [III]

Settlement Guard.

Among the first to enlist in the ‘Patriot Army’ to go and build a barricade at Rivière Sale, 20 October 1869, to prevent the entry of the foreign Canadian government officials.

Louis Blondeau [III] was Métis, of St. Boniface Parish, lot 8, family #351 (born c. 1843 at Red River, to Louison ‘Louis’ Blondeau [II] and Josephte ‘Josette’ Defont/ Defond/ Desfonds; nephew of Simon Blondeau, who was present after the Seven Oaks incident and who was present at the Battle of the Grand Coteau in 1851), afterwards married Philomene Martel/ Martelle (born to Joseph Martelle and Marie Ritchot).[7]

[7] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 2.

Paul Blondin

Paul Blondin was Métis, associated with St. Boniface Parish, Red River Settlement, and with Pembina U.S. (born to #356 Paul Blondin/ Blondeau and Esther Robillard), married Celestine Berard (born to Jean Baptiste Berard and Helen Martin dit Lavallee; sister of Baptiste Berard [above]).

Pierre Champagne

Named by Joseph Nolin and Baptiste Charette as a member of a 6 man firing squad at Thomas Scott‘s execution (some accounts stated there were 5 men, some accounts stated 7).[8] His brother-in-law, August Harrison, was active in the Resistance, being elected to the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia in 1870.

Pierre Champagne was Métis, of Ste.-Anne, lot 68, family #737 (born c. 1833/ 1839 to Emmanuel Champagne  and Marguerite Larocque; brother-in-law to Hon. Auguste Harrison, Ste.-Anne), married Marguerite Beauchamp (Métis, born 1834 to #120 Charles Beauchamp and Catherine Falardeau).

[8] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 57, 67; Duncan Nolin, quoted in Le Métis (31 October  1874), 1, 3. See also Mestisgen, RootsWeb, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/METISGEN/2002-11/1037850022.

Baptiste Charette

Later described himself as “sometimes” a Mounted Guard.[9]

There were at least three men named Baptiste Charette at Red River Settlement.[10] The eldest can be discounted as a member of the guard. The second, in his mid-sixties, is a possible candidate, but the youngest seems the most likely, even though a number of his relatives apparently objected to the idea of a provisional government in November, 1869. Among the objectors was this Baptiste’s brother, Francois Charette (below), who likewise became a mounted guard of the provisional government.

The youngest Baptiste Charette was Métis, of Pointe Coupée, lot 17, family #746 (born 1842 to #747 Joseph Charette Sr. and Marie Gosselin; brother of Francois Charette), married Marie Parenteau (Métis, born 1843; died 1869), afterwards married Eliza Dease (born 1850).[11]

[9] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 67.

[10] The eldest Baptiste Charette (French Canadian, born 1784), married Charlotte Sansregret (Métis, born 1785). See Scrip affidavit for Venne, Marie; born: Summer, 1804; husband: Pierre Venne Sr.; father: Baptiste Charette (French Canadian); mother: Charlotte Sans Regret (Métis); claim no: 2712; scrip No; 12082; date of issue: Apr. 20, 1877.

A second Baptiste Charette (born 1814), married Angelique Petit (born 1820). See Charette, Adélaide – Concerning her claim as a head of family – Address, Wallhalla, Dacota Territory – Born, 1849 at Cypress Hills – Father, Baptiste Charette, (Métis) – Mother, Angélique Petit, (Métis) – Married, 1865 on Plains to Cyrille Frédérick – Children living, six (names on declaration) – Children deceased, one – Scrip for $160 – Claim 1675 =

[11] Scrip affidavit for Charette, Baptiste & claim of Eliza Charette; father: Joseph Charette (Métis); Father of Eliza Charette: Wm. Dease (Métis); claim no.: 1787; scrip no.: 10684; date of issue: Sept. 20, 1876; amount: $160 N.W.1/4 22, S 1/2, N.E. 1/4 31, Tp. 9, R.2, E to Eliza Charette. =

Scrip affidavit for Charette, Baptiste; born: 27 November 1866; father: Baptiste Charette the deponent; mother: Marie Parenteau = Demande de certificat pour Charette, Baptiste; né(e): le 27 novembre 1866; père: Baptiste Charette le témoin déposant; mère: Marie Parenteau RG15-D-II-8-a

Francis/ François Charette

Mounted Guard, South Gate, Upper Fort Garry.[12] He apparently changed allegiances during the Resistance, having been among possible objectors to a Provisional Government. who signed a petition to that effect, 29 November 1869.

François Charette was Métis, of Pointe Coupée, lot 90, family #747 (born 27 March 1849 to Joseph Charette and Marie Gosselin; brother of Baptiste Charette), afterwards, on 9 January 1872 at St. Boniface, married Marguerite McLeod (daughter of Neil McLeod and Louise Dease).

[12] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 64.

Thomas H. ‘Tom’ Clover

Armament maintenance.

According to Clover’s autobiographical notes, he was acquainted with John C. Schultz and in the spring of 1869:

“Mr. Snow arrived.

Went with him to Oak point, near Old Man Ducharme’s.  He couldn’t get anybody to cook and asked me if I could cook for them for a few days.  I said I would do the best I could.  We had two cooks, clerks, and a large crew of men. I appeared to please them. Butter was very scarce in those days and I was ordered only to give butter once a day.  One day, a man named Scott got up earlier in the back tent and got some butter. I told him that I had orders to give them butter only once a day and he said, ‘All right.’

During the time I was living there, a man came in, Charles Mair, and he found a little book lying on the floor.  He said, ‘We could make money out of that book.  Let me take it home with me for a few days.’  I said, ‘Be sure and bring it back, for it is handy for me to look at the past.’

At that time Riel’s Rebellion broke out and the men were all called in and sent down to Fort Garry, so I went with them.  When we stopped at noon, they all went ahead and Ducharme and I came behind with blankets and other goods.  We found all of the men at Dr. Schultz’s house.  They commenced to take their blankets out of the sleigh, and one man took hold of my blankets. I said, ‘Hold on there. These are my blankets.’ I was bound not to go in there.  I said that I was an American citizen and had no business with Riel’s Rebellion.  I took my blankets and went downtown to John Linen’s [sic: Lennon’s] saloon. I sat there a few minutes when a few of Riel’s soldiers came and told me Riel wanted me up at the fort.  I said, ‘All right, we will go.’ So we went along up to Riel’s office.  I said, ‘Riel, what do you want?’ He said, ‘What are you going to do downtown?’ I said that I was not going to get drunk, but wanted to see some of the boys.  He said, ‘We have all kinds of good whiskey here, you can have all you want.’ I said, ‘Mr. Riel, I am much obliged to you, but I have to see some boys downtown.’  He said, ‘All right, you may go downtown if you are back in one hour.’ I said, ‘What do you want me to do when I come back?’  He said, ‘We have a lot of cannons in the shed that want fixing to put them in firing order.  You will have nothing to do yourself.  I’ll give you plenty of men and you will give orders.’ I went to work cleaning cannons and worked all night.  In the morning we had six cannon ready for firing.

Riel came and said to me that he thought they were going to be attacked by over 100 men from Portage la Prairie.  Scott was the head of the party (the same man that took the butter when I was cooking).  I said, ‘Riel, I think there is not much danger.  We must be ready for them.’ While we were talking we saw them coming towards the Fort. Riel sent 50 men on horseback to meet them. When they saw the men coming they changed their course. The horseman went ahead of them and drove them all into the Fort as prisoners.  During the time that Scott was a prisoner he was quite giddy. When the cook would take him anything to eat he was liable to kick him when he was going away. They gave Mr. Scott a trial and he was sentenced to be shot.  At the time he was to be shot there were four men with double shotguns. So Scott marched out in front of the Fort to the gate.  He passed right by me and said, ‘Good-bye, Tom.’ He had his hands tied behind him with a rope and I could see his hands were nearly frozen.  The men were ordered to fire, and as Scott fell to the ground, he said, ‘Oh, Lord.’ One man that fired was Jim Let [identity unknown].  He said, ‘Bring me another gun and I’ll finish him.’ Before they got there with the gun he was gone.  Scott was carried into the company’s workhouse and laid there. That was the last I saw of Mr. Scott and I never knew what became of the body.  A couple of days after I said, ‘I better leave this country,’ and old Mike Melon said, ‘Where are you going? By gee, I will go too.’ So we started for Pembina, family, and all.  That was towards spring, in 1870.”

A dubious account alleged Clover was one of the firing squad at Thomas Scott’s execution. I have found no other evidence for this assertion, although sources do appear to confirm that Clover was at Red River until July 1870.[13]

Thomas ‘Tom’ Clover was American (born 11 May 1829, in Hillsboro, Jefferson County, Missouri, to Michael Clover and Pherove; gold prospector, by age 20 “a California forty-niner on the trail of gold there in 1849, he joined the Cariboo Gold Rush and then his search for the precious metal drew him to the Edmonton area” in 1860), married 1861 to Elizabeth ‘Betsy’ Paul (born 1843 to Paulet Paul and Josephte). They moved to Red River Settlement, then to Dakota Territory after the Resistance.

[13] The questionable account was published in Canadian Historical Review (1959), 225. See also http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~clover/tt/monroe/tomlibby.html; and Lawrence Herzog, “The clover in Clover Bar“; and June Clover Byrne, “Thomas Clover of Jefferson County Missouri,” which includes portions of Clover’s autobiographical ms.

Jean Baptiste Comtois dit Morin

According to Laderoute’s account, Morin was one of the guards placed on or near the Governor’s House, Upper Fort Fort Garry, “for quite a few days” in 1870. Apparently, Laderoute was not impressed with the guards’ vigilance: “He noticed that there was card playing in the basement of the house.” In his view, this was an indication that “Many of our men did not feel like keeping up with the enterprise they had started.” The other card players included Joseph Genthon, ‘Big Louison’ Perrault dit Morin, Jean Baptiste Gouriotte/ Grouette, “and others I don’t remember their names.”[14]

Jean Baptiste Comtois dit Morin, of undetermined residence (born 1834 to #3180 Antoine Morin and Therese Larocque), married Nancy Delorme (born to Joseph Delorme and Isabelle Gourneau; sister of Captain Joseph ‘Kar-yence’ Delorme, an Officer of the Provisional Government military force [born 1838 at Red River; married to Angelique Gingras, daughter of St. Joseph’s traders Antoine Gingras and Scholastique Trottier]).

[14] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 4.

 Marcel Comtois/ Comptois-Roy/ Roy/ Roi/ Roy dit Comtois

Named by Joseph Nolin and Baptiste Charette as a member of the firing squad at Scott’s execution.[15]

Marcel Roy was Metis, of Pointe-à-Grouette, lot 535, family #4264 (born 1838 at Pointe-à-Grouette to #4265 François Roy and Isabelle Lafreniere; a buffalo hunter and a farmer), married on 10 January 1860 to Ursule Jeanne Venne (Métis, born 1845 to Pierre Venne and Marie Ann Charette). They farmed at lot 535-538 Pointe-à-Grouette, afterwards known as Ste. Agathe, to about 1881.[16]

[15] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 57, 67. Duncan Nolin quoted in Le Métis (31 October  1874), 1, 3.

[16] See also http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/METISGEN/2004-05/1083538835; Nicole J.M. St-Onge, “The Dissolution of a Métis Community: Pointe à Grouette, 1860-1885,” Studies in Political Economy 18 (Autumn 1985), identifies Marcel Roy as principally a buffalo hunter.

Jean Baptiste ‘Bidou’/ ‘Bidaux’ Delorme

Guard.

Stationed as a guard at Schultz’s drugstore after the Canadian Party surrender of 7 December 1869. Narrowly escaped being blown up (see entry for Jean Baptiste Arcand above).

Baptiste Delorme was Métis, of Long Lake Settlement, St. Ann’s Parish, family #1094 (born 1831/ 1832 at Norway House to #1089 Baptiste Delorme [born 1781] and Catherine; died 1894), married Marguerite Pepin (Métis, born 1838/ 1855 at Pembina to #3772 Antoine Pepin and Marguerite Davis). This was a hunting family and moved often, living at Pembina, St. Boniface, St. Francois Xavier, Wood Mountain, Carlton, and Touchwood Hills.

Of their children: Sara married a Vermette; Jean, born October 1856, died December 1856; Marie, born 24 December 1857, married Francois Lariviere; David, born 16 February 1861, married Auxille LaFrance; Julienne, born 30 June 1863, married John William Fidler; Marcel, born 30 June 1863, died August 1863; Martial, born 16 March 1865, died November 1865; Edouard, born 30 September 1866, died October 1866; Francoise, born 1 October 1867, married Charles Lavallee, then James Fidler; Roger, born 13 April 1870, married Helene Lavallee; Adele, born 20 May 1872, married a Chabot; Marguerite, born 3 June 1874, married Martin Bouthaux; Elise, born 9 May 1874, married Andrew Stelia; Joseph, was born April 15, 1877.[17]

[17] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 7-8.

‘Johnny’ Desmarais.

According to Laderoute:

A party of men on horses, their names were Mr. O’Donaho [William B. O’Donoghue], Ambroise Lepine, Johnny Desmarais and others, I don’t remember their names, they brought back the people of Fort de Pierre [Boulton and the Portage Party] to Fort Garry.[18] It was decided that many would be condemned. Mr. O’Donnel Smith [Donald Smith] asked the government if he could go amongst the people and ask them if they would approve of the Government Provisoire if it would spare the lives of Captain Boulton and Powers. The people approving, all were freed excepting Scott, Wallace Gaudy [William Gaddy] and Sabyne [Herbert L. Sabine].[19]

There were at least two men named John Desmarais associated with Red River Settlement.

1. John Desmarais was Métis, of St. Boniface Parish, lot 107-110, family #1130 (born 1830/ 1831/ 1836 to #1239 Francois Desmarais and Rosalie Collins) married Louise Patenaude (Métis, born 1830/ 1836/ 1840 to #3850 Baptiste Patenaude and Louise Berge), and Marie (a Saulteaux woman, born 1837). The family was enumerated in the census of 1870, and remained at their farm in St. Boniface to at least 1875, when John and Louise applied for scrip. In 1883, John Desmarais had his riverlot occupancy recognized, receiving a patent for 85 acres at lot 4, St. Boniface.

2. John Desmarais was Métis (born July 1841 at St. François Xavier, to Joseph Desmarais [b. 1812] and Adelaide Clermont), married 1864 to Rose Gervais, and married 1869 to Helene Gosselin. The family was not enumerated in the census of 1870 (though perhaps two of the children were recorded with relatives). John and Helene apparently travelled — living first at St. Francois Xavier then at the Battlefords, Fort Walsh, Wood Mountain and Batoche. At the latter location, the family resided at lot 65. They had thirteen acres under cultivation and John worked as a hunter and freighter. He was a member of Captain Daniel Gariépy’s company — one of the 19 dizaines led by Gabriel Dumont during the 1885 Metis Resistance. The Provisional Council minutes of 17 April 1885 show an order for Desmarais to be provided with a cow.[20] Afterwards Desmarais fled to North Dakota and lived in the Belcourt/ Dunsieth area.

[18] Conceivably, ‘Fort de Pierre’ is a reference to Lower Fort Garry, St. Peter’s Parish/ Paroisse St Pierre, headquarters of the Canadian Party during the first attack on Upper Fort Garry in 1869, and perhaps presumed to be headquarters again for the second attack in 1870.

[19] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 2.

[20] “Minutes of the Provisional Government, April 1885,” in Canada, Sessional Papers, vol. 13, no. 43 (1886), 41-49.

[?] Ducharme

One dubious identification alleged that Ducharme was from Pembina and was later “shot at Devil’s Lake.”[21] There are indications that the Ducharme of 1869-1870 was named Joseph Ducharme. There were at least two Joseph Ducharmes at Red River in 1870:

1. Joseph ‘Descoteaux’ Ducharme, Métis, of Scratching River, Pointe Coupée, lot 73-124, family #1355 (born 1829/ 1835 to #1354 Joseph Ducharme and Marie Anne Lafournaise) married Helene Houle (Métis, born 1835/ 1844 to Charles/ Antoine Houle and Catherine Falardeau)

2. Joseph Ducharme, Métis, of St. Charles Parish, lot 94, along the Assiniboine about 15 miles from Upper Fort Garry, family #1350 (born 1820/ 1821) married Marguerite Racette (Métis, born 1825).

[21] F.N. Shrive, “Charles Mair, A Document on the Red River Rebellion,” Canadian Historical Review 40, no. 3 (1959), 225. See also Henry Safford Neal, Selden Noyes Clark, Edward Parmelee Smith, Robert F. Crowell, Thomas C. Jones, Dana E. King, Half-breed Scrip, Chippewas of Lake Superior: The Correspondence and Action (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874), 189. Thomas H. Clover wrote that ‘Old man Ducharme’ lived at Oak Point.

Joseph ‘Old Josai’ Gagnon.

Guard, Upper Fort Garry.

According to Laderoute, sometime after Bishop A.-A. Taché arrived at Red River (9 March 1870) and reported that the Red River delegates in Ottawa had reached a confederation agreement with Canada, only ‘Josai’ Gagnon and Baptiste Normand remained on guard duty with President Riel at Upper Fort Garry.[22]

Joseph Gagnon was Métis (born in 1814 to Joseph Gagnon and Josephte Lapierre of lot 190 Red River Settlement; enumerated as occupation hunter, family #120, in the 1850 Pembina census), married Marie Pelletier (born to Antoine Pelletier and Marguerite [Saulteaux]), married 1874 at Lebret to Suzanne Bourre.

[22] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 9.

Laurent Garneau/ Lawrence Gourneau

Reportedly, Garneau “served with the provisional government forces in the Red River resistance of 1869.”

Laurent Garneau was Métis, of St. Andrews Parish, lot 96-97, family #2011 (born 1840 at Mills Bay MI, U.S., to NWC trader Louis Garneau and an Ojibway woman; worked as a trader for furs on the Missouri; then “followed Métis buffalo hunters to Fort Garry”), married Eleanor Thomas (born 1851 to #4668 Alexander Thomas and Victoria Taylor).

After the Resistance, Garneau “was part of the westward migration.” In 1874, the family settled at Strathcona, river lot 7. He worked for the HBC at Fort Edmonton as herdsman and freighter on the Athabasca Trail.

In 1885, Garneau was “arrested and imprisoned for six months for refusing to obey a martial law ordering inhabitants to take refuge in Fort Edmonton to protect them from an Aboriginal attack.” He had instead sought refuge with a longtime friend, Chief Papasschayo of the Papaschase Band. In 1892, Garneau was “elected to the North West Territories Parliament in Regina but he was refused entry due to his previous involvement with Louis Riel.”

laurent garneau

Laurent Garneau in later life.

Garneau was renowned as “an excellent musician, always in demand.” A Manitoba maple tree that he planted on his property is still standing and is commemorated by a plaque.[23]

[23] See Laurent (Lawrence) Garneau – ARCHIVES CANADAAntediluvian Garneau: – Preserve Garneau; Preserve Garneau; “Remembering Laurent Garneau and Métis Heritage“; and Lawrence Herzog, “The Garneau Story.” See also LAC, CLAIM OF LAURENT GARNEAU FOR COMPENSATION FOR FALSES ARREST BY GENERAL STRANGE; Department of Public Works – Ottawa – Transmits letter from Mr. Laurent Garneau complaining of his arrest and imprisonment in connection with the late rising in the North West Territories; and His declaration in support of his claim to participate in Manitoba supplementary grant. Received with letter HB 602. Application on File.

Pierre Gladu

Mounted Guard, South Gate, Upper Fort Garry.[24]

There were at least two men named Pierre Gladu at Red River Settlement. Either of the two might have acted as a guard — though the elder, despite his age, seems to be the better fit.

1. Pierre Gladu was Métis, of St. Vital Parish, lot 61, family #1979 (born 1815 to #1973 Francois Gladu and an unidentified woman; father of Joseph Gladu), married Nancy Dease (Métis, born 1824 to #1057 John W. Dease and Genevieve Benoit; sister to William Dease Sr.).

Gladu, his son, and Dease apparently signed a petition as Objectors to a Provisional Govt., 29 Nov. 1869. Nevertheless, Pierre Gladu of St. Vital testified at the Lepine trial that in February 1870 he had been taken prisoner at Narcisse Marion’s place, St. Boniface, before becoming a soldier for the Provisional Government of Assiniboia at Upper Fort Garry.

2. ‘St.’ Pierre Gladu was Métis, at the time living at the house of Angus McGillis at St. Francois Xavier Parish (born March 1840 to Charles Gladu and Madeline Poitras; a voyageur/ tripman), later married Isabella Moossette (daughter of “Moosette a frenchman” and Angelique Cardinal).

[24] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 66.

Françios Guillmette/ Guillemette/ Guilmette

Named by Joseph Nolin and Baptiste Charette as a member of the firing squad at Scott’s execution. In subsequent histories, he is often reputed to be Métis; a member of the court marshall that sentenced Thomas Scott; and a member of the firing squad charged with the execution. According to some accounts he fired the coup de grâce. At some later date, so the story goes, Guillmette was shot and killed by Canadian militiamen seeking revenge, somewhere near Pembina.

It is not clear, however, that François Guillmette was Métis, or even at Red River during the Resistance. John Bruce suggested he was a French Canadian and relatively new to the settlement. Other accounts indicate that, at some point, Guillmette had been employed at the drugstore owned by John C. Schultz. It is possible that François Guillemette was related to, or has been confused with, Pierre Guillemette/ Peter Guilmette, who opened a store at Winnipeg in 1874.[25]

[25] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 57, 60, 65, 67. See also “Aftermath: The ‘Reign of Terror’,” this site. [Possibly related to Capital case, Elzear Guillemette before Mr. Justice Polette at Arthabaska – Prisoner respited? See also Capital case – Elzear Guillemette – [Minister of Justice] 16 May [recommends] said prisoner be discharged from custody; Translation of proceedings and evidence at trial of E. Guillemette for murder, [district] of Arthabaska – [Secretary of State recommends payment] of $89.25 for].

Jean Baptiste Grouette/ Gouriotte

One of the card-playing guards mentioned by Laderoute (see the entry for Jean Baptiste Comptois dit Morin above).

Jean Baptiste Grouette was (born 1829 to Antoine Grouette and Madeleine Nolin; cousin of Charles Nolin [born 1838]), married to Julie Perreault dit Morin.[26]

[26] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 4.

Damase Harrison

The deposition of André Nault “suggests that Jerome St. Matte and Damase Harrison were guards of Thomas Scott in Upper Fort Garry and that they insisted on a Council of War (court martial) because otherwise they would shoot him themselves. ‘They did not want to risk their lives in guarding this man.'”[27] Harrison’s brother, Auguste, was also active during the Resistance, being elected to the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia in 1870.

Damase Harrison was Metis, of Ste-Anne, lot 22-23, living with his parents’ family #2142 (born 19 September 1844/ 1845/ 1847 at St. Boniface Parish to Thomas Harrison and Pauline Lagimoniere; brother to Hon. Auguste Harrison, Ste.-Anne), married in 1873 to  Helene-Sarah St. Matte/ Jerome dit St. Mathe (Métis, born 1844 to Jean Baptiste Jerome dit St Matte/ Mathe and Josephte Courchene; orphaned, raised by aunt and uncle – Joseph Rolette and Angelique Jerome dit St Mathe; widowed by the murder of Élzear Goulet in 1870).

[27] Ruth Swan and Edward A. Jerome, “‘Unequal Justice:’ The Metis in O’Donoghue’s Raid, 1871,” Manitoba History 39 (spring/ summer 2000), citing Provincial Archives of Manitoba, MG3 B18, Andre Nault depositions, p. 383. Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 58, 81. See also “Aftermath: The ‘Reign of Terror’,” this site.

Atalance Huppé/ Hupe [28]

Perhaps Joseph-Athanase Huppé, Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 79–99, family #2268 (born  3 May 1846 to #2269 Baptiste Hupé and Elizabeth Charbonneau), married Alphonsine ‘Sophie’ Atkinson (Métis, born 1850 to Henry Atkinson and Scholastique Villeneuve)

[28] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 82.

J.C. Kennedy

Acted as a scout in the Red River Cavalry; gunsmith.

On 3 December 1869, it was rumoured that “a large number” of Canadians were assembling in the Town of Winnipeg “to attack” Upper Fort Garry, and that George ‘Shawman’ Racette was heading into town from Portage la Prairie with “1100” Sioux. In response to the rumours, “a number of the French who were outside of the Riel party” decided to join the Comité National. Hugh F. Olone (who was affiliated with the Comité National), held a meeting at his saloon to “form a company for the protection of the Town.” Twenty-four men immediately signed up. Olone, ‘Capt.’ Hugh Donaldson, and J.C. Kennedy formed a committee to enrol more, and to obtain additional arms. Subsequently, there were “armed night patrols of from 15 to 20 men on guard in the Town of Winnipeg to prevent fire or pillage.”[29]

J.C. Kennedy

Sample advertisement for J.C. Kennedy [See the two separate parts posted at Manitobia, from the New Nation (28 January), 3, and New Nation (28 January), 3.]

J.C. Kennedy was of the Town of Winnipeg. In most histories he is assumed to be American, but was possibly from Coaticook, Quebec.[30]

[29] Begg, Red River Journal, 198, 204, see also 162, 247.

[30] See “Canadian And London Gunmakers to 1900,” pdf.; and Full text of “History of southeastern Dakota, its settlement and growth , which mentions a J.C. Kennedy as well.

Chrysostome Laderoute

Guard.

On 20 October 1869, Laderoute went with Louis Blondeau, Cyrile Laroque, and others to Rivière Sale to build a barricade.

After the Canadian surrender at John C. Schultz’s store on 7 December 1869, Laderoute was sent to guard it. Along with Bidaux Delorme and Baptiste Arcand, he narrowly avoided being blown up by gunpowder stashed in the stovepipes (see entry for Baptiste Arcand above).[31]

Chrysostome Laderoute was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 12-13, family #2490 (born 6 January 1848, at St. Boniface, to #2497 Jean Baptiste Laderoute and Josephete ‘Josette’ Roguebrune/ Larocque; brother of Jean Baptiste Laderoute Jr.), married 26 April 1870 at St. Boniface to Christine Larocque (Métis, born 1846/ 1848 to #2672 Charles Larocque and Cecile Laberge/ Thiberge; sister of Cyrile Larocque)

[31] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 1.

Jean Baptiste Laderoute

Laderoute left a memoir in which he recounted that, along with Le Grand Louison Lariviere and Ambroise Lepine, he stopped Joseph-Alfred-Norbert Provencher and Captain D.R. Cameron of William McDougall’s party from proceeding past the barricade at Rivière Sale (1 November 1869).

He went with Benjamin Lagimodiere and others from St. Norbert, St. Francois Xavier, and Ste. Anne des Chenes to occupy Upper Fort Garry (2 November 1869). Laderoute recalled that when they arrived at the fort the gates were all open. They closed the large south gate and the north gate where the cannon fortifications were. They left the small east gate facing St. Boniface open. Baptiste Berard looked after them, sharing his sugar and tea.[32]

Jean Baptiste Laderoute Jr. was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 12, family #2489 (born 1 October 1834/ 1837 at St. Vital, to #2497 Jean Baptiste Laderoute and Josephete ‘Josette’ Roguebrune/ Larocque; grandson of Jean Philbert Ladéroute [b. 1778] and Marguerite Pontbriand dit Sansregret; brother of Chrysostome Laderoute), married 4 February 1862, at St. Norbert, to Marguerite St. Arnaud/ Tourond (born 6 April 1844/ 1845, at Mackenzie River, to Bonaventure St. Arnaud/ Tourond and Geneviève Contré). They had twelve children. After 1870, Ladéroute moved to Olga, North Dakota and became a permanent resident there.

[32] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 1.

Philbert/ Philibert Laderoute

Reportedly accompanied Ambroise Lepine and Andre Nault to Pembina to stop William McDougall.[33]

There were two men named Philibert Laderoute at Red River, father and son:

1. Philibert Laderoute was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 17, family #2488 (born 2 March 1824 at St. Boniface, to #2496 Jean Philibert/ Thibert Laderoute and Marguerite Pontbriand dit Sansregret; uncle of Jean Baptiste and Chrysotome Laderoute), married Julie Lépine (born to #2921 Jean Baptiste Lepine and Julie Henry; sister of Jean Baptiste, Maxime, and Ambroise Dydime Lepine).

2. His son, also named Philibert Laderoute, was 22 years old and lived at the family home with 3 younger brothers and two younger sisters.

[33] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 2.

Benjamin Lagemodier/ Lagimodiere/ Lagimonière

According to Laderoute’s account, Lagimodiere accompanied men from St. Norbert, St. Francois Xavier, and Ste. Anne des Chenes to occupy Upper Fort Garry (2 November 1869). Apparently, there was no opposition when they arrived: “the doors were all opened.”[34]

Benjamin Lagemodier/ Lagemoniere was non-Aboriginal, of St. Boniface, lot 107-113, family #2543 (born 15 January 1811 at Fort Pembina to #2537 Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere and Marie Anne Gaboury), married Angelique Carriere (born 1834 at St. Boniface to #707 Andre Carriere and Angelique Dion/ Lyon).

[34] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 7.

 Elzéar Lagemodier/ Lagimodiere/ Lagimonière

Joseph Nolin testified that Lagimonière favoured exiling Scott, rather thanan execution.[35]

Elzear Lagemodier was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 99, family #2540 (born 1838 to #2541 Jean Baptiste ‘La Prairies’ Lagimonière [brother to Julie Lagimonière who was mother of Louis Riel] and Marie Harrison [sister to Thomas Harrison who married Appoline Lagimonière and was the father of Hon. Auguste Harrison, Ste.-Anne; and sister to Damase Harrison of the settlement guard]; cousin to President Louis Riel, Provisional Government of Assiniboia), married 1858 to Sarah Goulet (born 1838/ 1839 to #2012 Alexis Goulet and Josephte Cheverette/ Josette Saveret/ Siveright; sister to Guillemine Goulet, who married Miles/ Myles McDermott; so was sister-in-law to both Anne ‘Annie’ McDermot Bannatyne and Mary Sarah ‘Sally’ McDermott Mactavish; and sister to Élzear Goulet).

[35] Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 240. LAC has a photograph, although it is not available online, see http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=3525416&rec_nbr_list=3525416.

Modeste Lagemodier/ Lagimodiere/ Lagimonière

Later described himself as “Riel’s servant,” not as a guard.[36] There were at least two men of the name at the settlement:

1. Modeste Lagemodiere was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 26-29, family #2547  (born 1849 to #2549 Joseph Lagemoniere and Josephine Lussier) married Caroline Lariviere (Métis, born 1845 to D. Lariviere and an unidentified woman)

2. Modeste Lagemodiere was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 99-111, family #2545 (born 25 March 1842/ 1843 to #2546 Romain Lagemoniere and Marie Vaudry), married 21 June 1870 at St. Charles Parish to Elizabeth ‘Betsy’ Ducharme (Métis, born 1847 to Joseph Ducharme and Marguerite Racette).

[36] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 58, 81.

[?] Laprairie/ La Prairie

A dubious identification suggests he was Métis “From Fort William (and afterwards shot at Fort William) the one who fired the pistol in Scott’s ear when shot.”[37]

Possibly Jean-Baptiste ‘Laprairie’ Lagemodiere/ Lagemoniere, Non-Aboriginal, of St. Boniface, lot 79-99, family #2537 (born 1808 to #2537 Baptiste Lagemonier and Marie Ann Gaboury) married Marie Harrison (Métis, born 1806; died 1865)

[37] Shrive, “Charles Mair, A Document,” Canadian Historical Review (1959), 225. This might be a conflation of Joseph LaPrairie and the fur trade conflicts of the late 1700s and early 1800s in which he participated, with the events of 1869 – 1870.

Louis ‘Le Grand Louison’ Lariviere/ Desriviere

According to Laderoute’s account, Le Grand Louison Lariviere, with Lepine and Laderoute, stopped Joseph-Alfred-Norbert Provencher and Capt. D.R. Cameron of William McDougall’s party at the barricade, Rivière Sale.

Lariviere was one of the guards placed on the Governor’s House, Upper Fort Fort Garry, “for quite a few days” in 1870. He was specifically detailed to watch over Donald A. Smith, Commissioner from Canada.[38]

Louis ‘Le Grand Louison’ Lariviere was non-Aboriginal, a farmer, of St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point, Long Lake Settlement, family #1294 and #2653 (born 6 March 1816 to Louison Lariviere and Marie Patenaude; died 12 December 1910 at Olga, ND) married Marie Lambert (Metis, born 1828 to #2573 Antoine Lambert and Marie [Saulteaux]). Louis Lariviere and Marie Lambert initially lived at St. Vital Parish, but sold their property to the Riels (who built Riel House, now a museum), and relocated to Long Lake Settlement, St. Ann’s Parish and to Baie St. Paul.[39]

[38] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 4.

[39] Scrip affidavit for Lariviere, Louis; born: March 6, 1816; father: Louison Lariviere (French Canadian); mother: Marie Patenaude (French Canadian), an original white settler from Le Bout, L’Isle de Jesus, Quebec, settled in Red River Country in 1831

Scrip affidavit for Lariviere, Marie; born: 1828; wife of Louis Lariviere; father: Antoine Lambert (French Canadian); mother: Marie (Indian); claim no: 1270; scrip no: 10214; date of issue: August 21, 1876; amount: $160 =

Cyrile Larocque [sometime misidentified as ‘Charles’]

One of the men tasked by the Comité National with building a barricade at Rivière Sale, 20 October 1869.[40]

Cyrile Larocque was Metis, of St. Vital, lot 25? family #2671 (born 1846 at St. Vital, to #2672 Charles Larocque [b. 1815 at RR] and Cecile Desbarges/ Laberge), married Isabelle Larence (Metis, born 1851 to #2641 Bazile Laurence and Agathe “Iroquoise”).

[40] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 1. Photographed with “President Riel, in group with a number of members of the Government and prominent defenders of the people’s rights,“ c. 3 May 1870 by Joseph Langevin, probably at R.H. McLaughlin’s Picture Gallery, Town of Winnipeg. Some sources that name those in the photograph identify him as Charles Larocque (others name him Bonnet Tromage or François Guilmette, for whom records have not been found).

Jean Baptiste Lépine

“In July 1869 he was appointed by a group of Métis in the Red River Settlement to organize with Baptiste Tourond a patrol whose duty was to scrutinize the movements of Canadians in the settlement and to warn of strangers suspected of designs on Métis lands.” He reputedly voted against the execution of Scott, but took part in the execution.[41]

Jean Baptiste Lepine was Métis, of Pointe Coupée, lot 35, family #2923 (born 19 January 1824 to #2921 Jean Baptiste Berard dit Lepine and Julia Allary/ Henry; farmer; brother to Adjutant General Hon. Ambroise-Dydime Lépine, St. Vital, who oversaw Scott’s court martial; badly injured — some accounts allege murdered — “in anti Riel attacks”) married [1848] Isabelle Parenteau (Métis, born 1830 to #3811 Pierre Parenteau and Josephte Lauren/ Lambert).[42]

[41] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 66, 90. Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 240.

[42] Hartwell Bowsfield, “Lépine, Jean-Baptiste,” DCB. Baptiste voted in favour of an armed force to repulse the Fenian invasion and was elected second captain of troops from La Pointe Coupée on October 7, 1871.

Scrip affidavit for Lepine, Baptiste; born: 19 January 1824; father: Baptiste Lepine (French Canadian).; mother: Julie Allary (Métis); claim no: 1851; scrip no: 10748; date of issue: Sept. 20, 1876; amount: $160 =

Scrip affidavit for Lepine, Isabelle; born: 1830; wife of Baptiste Lepine; father: Pierre Parenteau (French Canadian); mother: Josephte Lambert (Métis); claim no: 1852; scrip no: 10749; date of issue: Sept. 20, 1876; amount: $160 =

James ‘Jim’ Let/ Lett [oppositional?]

His identity has not been established.  Thomas H. Clover alleged that a ‘Jim Let’ wanted to finish off Thomas Scott, but that by the time Let had secured a gun Scott’s body had been taken away.[43]

[43] See Thomas Clover, quoted in June Clover Byrne, “Thomas Clover of Jefferson County Missouri,” which includes portions of Clover’s autobiographical ms; and METIS CULTURE 1848-1849 – Redirect for www.telusplanet.net., which refers to a ‘Mr. Lett’ — Joseph Lett who conducted a census of White Horse Plains “division near Chiefs’ Mountain, not far from Shayenne River, Dacotah (Dakota) Territory,” in 1849. “The Journals of John Allen Snow,” indicates a number of Letts were associated with Canadian surveyor John Allen Snow.

Pierre L’Eveille/ Leveille/ Lavallee

According to chronicler Alexander Begg and to commissioner from Canada, Donald A. Smith, Leveille was at one point in opposition to Riel. Leveille, however, wrote a letter to the New Nation protesting this characterization, stating:

“As one of the former representatives of the people, and as such during Mr. Commissioner Smith’s stay here, I have read with some surprise statements in that gentleman’s Report to the Canadian Government which are incorrect, and to which I beg, through ‘the columns of The New Nation,’ to offer a public explanation in proof of my assertion. … I beg to say that we in no way recognized the justice of the course of Canada towards us … There never existed any division among the French as to their loyalty to the Crown of England. Therefore there could not be a loyal party and a disloyal party, as Smith reports … For my part, had Mr. Smith’s commission granted ‘our rights,’ I had no wish to continue in the cause of opposition against Canada; but until they were secured, we determined to unite, as with one heart, feeling assured that England would protect us as loyal subjects, although ‘rebels’ to the unjust cause of Canada.

With reference to Mr. Smith’s regret that no demand was made, according to his request, that the British ensign should be hoisted and all arms laid down, and that the flag then flying be hauled down (the flag of the Provisional Government) … I would state that Mr Smith deceived himself very much if he thought it was the intention of myself and the leaders with whom I was associated, to lay down our arms, or haul down the flag, which we had hoisted to obtain our rights as British subjects — we considering that it was time to do so when the object was attained for which the people had taken up arms.”[44]

Pierre L’Eveille/ Leveille/ Lavallee Jr. was Métis, of St. Francois Xavier Parish, lot 42-43, family #2830 (born 14 January 1829, St. François-Xavier Parish, to Pierre LeVeille Sr. [of Canada] and Julie McKenzie [Métis, born 1800]; he “stood over six feet in his moccasins and weighed 300 pounds”) married Genevieve Faillant/ Fagnant (Métis, born 1834/ 1835 to Baptiste Faillant and Suzette Monette).

[44]The Law Marched West“; Pierre Leveille, letter to the editor (translated), “Letter from Pierre Leveille,” New Nation (27 May 1870), continued.

Joseph McMullen/ McMillan

Jean Baptiste Laderoute reported that in February of 1870, Joseph McMillan warned the Provisional Government that the Canadian Party of Portage la Prairie was on its way to seize Upper Fort Garry.[45]

Joseph McMullen/ McMillan was Métis, of St. Charles Parish, lot 98-99, family #3456 (born 4 December 1849 at St Boniface to #3457 and #3120 William McMullen/ McMillan and Marguerite/ Margaret Dease; died 5 October 1923, St. James) married [21 February 1870] Appoline ‘Pauline’ Bruce (Métis, born 27 November 1851 at St Boniface to Jean Baptiste Bruce and Catherine Perreault; sister of John Bruce the first President of the Provisional government in 1869).

[45] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 12.

Antoine Marcelin/ Marcelais

Laderoute mentioned being told by Marcelin of a plan to occupy Upper Fort Garry to thwart Canadian Party plans to install their own government.[46]

Antoine Marcelin/ Marcelais was non-Aboriginal, of Pointe Coupée, lot 87, family #2721 (born 1842/ 1843 at Pont-Château, Soulanges, south west of Montreal; travelled to California at age 18; arrived at Victoria by 1866, afterwards moving to St. Albert, near Edmonton, and from there to Red River Settlement; received a patent for land at Ste. Agathe, MB, 1874/ 1875) married Rosalie Tourond (Métis, born 1851/ 1852 to #4579? Bonaventure Tourond/ St. Anaud and Genevieve Contre?). In 1890 Antoine, Rosalie, and their adopted daughter Aldina moved to Muskeg Lake SK, where they opened a store. A village was named after them.[47]

[46] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 11.

[47] http://musee.societehisto.com/antoine-marcelin-n372-t270.html Musee virtuel francophone de la Saskatchewan.

Louis Morin

Guard.

Laderoute listed Morin among the card playing guards of Upper Fort Garry (see entry for Jean Baptiste Comtois dit Morin above).[48]

Louis Morin was Métis, of Pointe Coupée, lot 86-91, family #3179 (born 1835/ 1837 at St. Boniface to #3180 Antoine Morin and Therese Larocque; brother of Jean Baptiste Comtois dit Morin; plains hunter and trader) married Marguerite Gosselin (Métis, born 1842 to Francois Gosselin and an unidentified woman). In 1870 Louis, Marguerite, and their children were reportedly living in a tent.

[48] Laderoute, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 4.

André ‘Nanin’ Nault

In 1849, 19-year-old Nault was among the armed Métis at the Sayer trial, defending “the rights and liberties of the country’s population.”

When Canadian surveyors trespassed on the hay privilege of his family’s farm on 11 October 1869, Nault and a number of his relatives, including Louis Riel, put a stop to their activity — the first overt act of the Resistance at Red River.

On 21 Oct. 1869 Nault was tasked by the Comité National des Métis with overseeing the building a barrier at St. Norbert (manned by 250 to 300 men) to prevent Canadian lieutenant governor designate, William McDougall, and his cargo of 350 rifles, from entering Red River Settlement. On 1 November, Nault and his brother Benjamin turned back McDougall’s representatives — Joseph-Alfred-Norbert Provencher and Captain Donald Roderick Cameron — who returned to Pembina across the U.S. border. By Nault’s account:

Around the middle of the day Captain Cameron arrived and wanted them to remove the barrier but André Neault and Benjamin Neault took the horse by the bridle and Cameron had enough, fearful and shaking like a leaf he was taken to Théophile Jetté and kept in view. Joseph Delorme was the jail keeper. Louis Riel ordered Lépine a troop of twenty men to take Provencher and Cameron south and to expel the Lieutenant Governor who had settled at fort Pembina.[49]

On 2 November, Nault was among those who took possession of Upper Fort Garry “to prevent it from falling into the hands of John Christian Schultz and his Canadian supporters.”

As of 4 December 1869, Nault occupied the HBC Fort Pembina, north of the international border, to keep an eye on McDougall. On 23 December, McDougall having headed back to Canada, Nault returned to Red River.

According to the reminicences of Jean Laderoute, at the time of the Portage Party attempt to attack Upper Fort Garry in February of 1870: “’Andre Nault being the Captain said Let us make war!’ Riel said, ‘I beg of you for mercy sake! They are only coming to scale the walls, just throw them down. No bloodshed’.”[50]

In some accounts, Nault is identified as a member of the military tribunal that condemned Thomas Scott.

André ‘Nanin’ Nault was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital (west), lot 12, family #3698 (born 21 April 1830 at Point Douglas to #3711 Amable Nault [b. 1798; arrived Red River Settlement in 1825] and Josephte Lagimoniere), married Anastasie Landry (born to #2592 Joseph Landry and Genevieve Lalonde).

[49] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 6.

Scrip affidavit for Nault, André; born: April 21, 1830; father: Amable Nault (French Canadian); mother: Josephte Lagemonière (French Canadian); father – an original white settler from Berthier, Québec, settled in Red River Country in 1825 =

Scrip affidavit for Nault, Anasthasie; born: June 17, 1833; wife of André Nault; father: Joseph Landry (French Canadian); mother: Geneviève Lalonde (French Canadian), original white settlers from St. Michel Québec, settled in Red River Country in 1820 =

[50] Laderoute, quoted in “Personalities,” 6-7.

André Nault

‘Boy Lieutenant’

“At the age of 14 he followed his father and his uncle, Andre Nault, who was one of Riel’s intimates and advisers to Fort Garry. The fearlessness and daring the young lad showed in patrolling the walls of the old fort as a garrison guard won favour with Riel and the lad was soon regarded as one of the chieftain’s best men.”[51]

Andre Nault was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital, living at lot 13-15 with his parents (born 10 May 1854 to #3721 Baptiste Nault and Catherine Ducharme).

[51]‘Boy Lieutenant’ of Louis Riel Dies. Famous Manitoba Figure Succumbs,” Border Cities Star (Windsor, ON: 14 October 1927) [via Derrick Nault, posts, Academia.edu]. See also “Picturesque Manitoba Character Succumbs,” Manitoba Free Press (14 October, 1927), which notes André was born “opposite the home of Louis Riel”; and “Spent His Life in Manitoba,” Manitoba Free Press (15 October, 1927), which includes a photograph.]

Scrip affidavit for Nault, André; born: May 10, 1854; father: Baptiste Nault (French Canadian); mother: Catherine Ducharme (French Canadian); grandson of an original white settler from Scotland, settled in Red River Country in 1820 =

Benjamin Nault

Present to stop Webb’s surveyor crew, 11 October 1869.

Benjamin Nault was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital, lot 28, family #3703 (born 24 June 1831/ 1832 at St. Boniface to #3711 Amable Nault and Josephte Lagimonière/ Lagemodiere) married Isabelle Hamelin (Métis, born 1835 to #2113 Solomon Hamelin and Isabelle Vandal).[52]

[52] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 7.

Jean Baptiste Nault

Present to stop Webb’s surveyor crew, 11 October 1869.

Jean Baptiste Nault was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital, lot 13-15, family #3721 (born 1826/ 1827 to #3711 Amable Nault and Josephte Lagimonière/ Lagemodiere) married Catherine Ducharme (Non-Aboriginal, born 1826/ 1828 to #1347 Francois Ducharme and Louise Rivel).[53]

[53] J.S. Dennis, “Memorandum of Facts and Circumstances connected with the active Opposition by the French Half-Breed in the Settlement to the prosecution of the Government Surveys,” in Great Britain, Colonial Office, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurrences in the North-West Territories (London: W. Clowes, 1870), 5, lists the members of the “Band” opposed to the survey as “Louis Riel, leader, De Saugré [sic: unknown] and Son, Baptiste Nons [sic: Nault], Baptiste Treuau [sic: Goudreau] and three sons, Francois Chareat [sic: Charette], Bideau Non [sic: Nault], Edward Morin, Mannin Non [sic: André ‘Nannin’ Nault], Janvive Richot [sic: JanvierRitchot], Benjamin Non [sic: Nault]; three others, names not known.” A.-H. de Trémaudan, Histoire de la nation métisse dans l’Ouest canadien (Montréal: A. Lévesque, 1935), 167, lists Louis Riel, André Nault, J.-B. Ritchot, Romain Nault, Benjamin Nault, Edouard Perreault, Prosper Nault, Amable Gaudry, Baptiste Nault, J. Sansregret and his sons, Baptiste Goudreau and three sons.

Prosper Nault

Present to stop Webb’s surveyor crew, 11 October 1869.[54]

Prosper Nault was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital, living at lot 13-15 with his parents (born 1849 to #3721 Jean Baptiste Nault and Catherine Ducharme)

[54] Barkwell, “Personalities,”7.

Romain Nault

Present to stop Webb’s survey crew 11 October 1869.[55]

Romain Nault was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital, lot 40-42, family #3705 (born 1838 at St. Boniface to #3711 Amable Nault and Josephte Lagimoniere) married Philomene Landry (born 1859 to #2592 Joseph Landry and Genevieve Lalonde; sister of Anastasie Landry above).

[55] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 7.

Joseph Nolin

Rev. George Young identified a man named Nolin as secretary to Adjutant General Lepine. A Joseph Nolin testified at the trial of Ambroise-Dydime Lépine in 1874, admitting to having been secretary, but he does not appear comfortable with appearing to have been a supporter of the Provisional Government as of 1874.[56]

There were two men named Joseph Nolin at Red River Settlement. The elder, born 1810, married Lizette Frederick. He died in 1872, so could not be the Joseph Nolin who testified in 1874 at the trial of Ambroise-Dydime Lépine.

The younger, Joseph Nolin was Métis, of Ste. Anne, lot 45, family #3735 (born 1842 to Augustin Nolin Sr. and Helene/ Henriette/ Anne/ ‘Nancy’ Cameron; August/ Augustin Nolin Jr. and Charles Nolin) married Marie Anne Gaudry (Métis, born 1842/ 1843 to Andre Gaudry and Madeleine David).

[56] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 46, 56. Augustin Nolin was perhaps also involved with the Settlement guard — having apparently sent a letter to Dennis telling him to keep clear of settler land. See Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, “Report of the Select Committee on the Causes of the Difficulties in the North-West Territory in 1869-70,” 10. However, it appears that Auguste/ Augustin Nolin was arrested, c. 10 March 1870. See “Prisoners,” this site; “Political PrisonersNew Nation (11 March 1870);  and http://listsearches.rootsweb.com/th/read/METISGEN/2005-04/1114459638.

Scrip affidavit for Nolin, Joseph; born: December 15, 1842; father: Augustin Nolin (Métis); mother: Ann Cameron (Métis); claim no: 572; scrip no: 4416 to 4423; date of issue: June 13, 1876; amount: $160 =

Scrip affidavit for Nolin, Marie Anne; born: January 12, 1842; husband: Joseph Nolin; father: Andre Gaudry (French Canadian); mother: Madeleine David (Métis); claim no: 573; scrip no: 4424 to 4431; date of issue: June 13, 1876; amount: $160 =

Jean Baptiste Normand

Guard

According to Laderoute, sometime after 9 March 1870 only Normand and ‘Josai’ Gagnon remained on guard duty with President Riel at Upper Fort Garry.[57]

Jean Baptiste Normand was Métis, of St. Norbert, lot 153, family #3746 (born 1810/ 1811 to Francois Michel Normand and Francoise Belanger) married Louise Carriere (Metis, born 1811 to Andre Carriere and Angelique Dion dit Lyon).

[57] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 9.

Alexandre Parisien

Named by Baptiste Charette as a member of the firing squad at Scott’s execution — though Charette (or the transcribers of his testimony) might have been mistaken.[58] Parisien had an allegiance by marriage to Chief Miskookenew/ ‘Red Eagle’/ Henry Prince. He was therefore probably not in agreement with the provisional government until, perhaps, the Canadian Party’s lynching of Norbert Parisien, who afterwards died, and to whom Alexandre Parisien was related.[59]

Alexandre Parisien was Métis, of St. Peter’s Parish, lot 83–85, family #3825 (born 1835 to Jean Baptiste Parisien Jr. and Margaret/ Marguerite Dutempt/ Destempt) married Sarah Prince (First Nations, born 27 September 1844, St. Peter’s Parish to [Chief] Miskookenew/ ‘Red Eagle’/ Henry Prince and an unidentified woman; granddaughter of Chief Peguis/ William King).

[58] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 67.

[59] See Norbert Parisien’s Family Ties; and The Three Deaths of the Resistance, this site.

Auguste/ Augustin Parisien

Named by Joseph Nolin as a member of the firing squad at Scott’s execution.[60]

An unreliable story alleged “Old Parisien and two sons” were on the firing squad for the execution of Scott, and that subsequently “Old Parisien [was] shot at Pembina Mountain near St. J. [St. Joseph], one of the sons was shot and one drowned.”[61] The reference to ‘Old Parisien’ possibly signified ‘Laventure’ Parisien (below), the two sons being Augustin (listed as ‘1. Augustin Parisien’ below) and Francois (below).

An Augustin Parisien was also apparently listed among objectors to a Provisional Govt., 29 Nov. 1869. There were, however, two men named Auguste/ Augustin Parisien at Red River Settlement:

1. Augustin Parisien, was Métis, of undetermined residence, family #4097 (born 1830 to #3841 Bonaventure ‘Laventure’ Parisien Jr. and Marguerite), married 1st Angelique Farghason/ Farquarson/ Ferguson, and 2nd Françoise Josephte Adam/ Adams (born 1832).

2. Augustin Parisien dit Leger, was Métis, of St. Norbert, lot 198, family #3823 (born 1810 to #3829 Parisien and Isabelle; uncle of ‘1. Augustin Parisien’ listed immediately above), 1st married Therese Ducharme (born 1812, died 1834), 2nd married Louise ‘Trois-pouces’ Vivier dit Allard (born 1819, died 1847), 3rd married in 1858 Angelique Adam dit McPherson (born 1820/ 1825 to George McPherson and Angelique Racette).

[60] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 57, 67, indicate Auguste/ Augustin Parisien was named by Joseph Nolin as a member of the firing squad for the execution of Thomas Scott. See also Duncan Nolin quoted in Le Métis (31 October  1874), 1, 3, who claimed not to remember if there was a sixth soldier. W.L. Morton, Begg’s Journal and other Papers, 328 n.1, identifies him as “Possibly Augustin Parisien, 1835-?, of St. Vital; but uncertain.”

[61] Shrive, “Charles Mair, A Document,” Canadian Historical Review (1959), 225, supplies the dubious account. While Alexander Ross and later J.J. Hargrave, both wrote about “J. Baptiste Parisien, shot dead by an unknown hand, while in the act of running buffalo in the Pembina Plains,” they were referring to the 1816 conflict at Red River.

Francois Parisien

According to Laderoute, Francois Parisien offered his services to Riel after the Portage Party were discovered to be on the way to seize Upper Fort Garry in February 1870.[62]

Francois Parisien was Métis, of undetermined residence, family #8041 (born 13 September 1828 to Bonaventure ‘Laventure’ Pariesien Jr. and Marguerite; enumerated as a hunter, Family # 15 in the 1850 Pembina census), 1st married Genevieve Lavallee dit Plante, 2d married 10 January 1860, at St. Norbert, Annie/ Anney Sahys/ Sayiss/ Sayer (born to Francois Sayis and Marguerite [Saulteaux]). A number of his children were recorded in the 1870 census as residing with relatives.

[62] Laderoute, cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 3.

‘Laventure’/ Bonaventure Parisien Jr. [opposing?]

Laderoute reported that Laventure was in William Dease’s party that went to meet with Riel at the barricade (27 October 1869). According to Laderoute, “La Venture Parisien was one of them wild and untamed, worse than an Indian with different colored feathers in his hair—real savage ways as signs of warfare.”[63] A number of Dease’ men afterwards switched allegiance to the provisional government, possibly Parisien among them.

Bonaventure Parisien Jr. was Métis, of Pointe Coupée, lot 60, family #3841 (born c. 1808, to Claude Bonaventure ‘Bonavan’ Parisien Sr. and Isabelle ‘Lizette’ [Saulteaux]; died 1873/ 1874), married Marguerite (Saulteaux, born 1810 at Red Lake).

[63] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 3.

Jean Baptiste Peron/ Perreault dit Morin

Guard

A Jean-Baptiste Perreault dit Morin was a delegate, along with Charles Nolin, from Ste. Anne des Chênes (Oak Point) to the Council of Twenty-four.

A Jean-Baptiste Perreault dit Morin was mentioned by Laderoute as among the card playing provisional government guards at Upper Fort Garry (see entry for Jean Baptiste Comtois dit Morin above).[64]

There were three men of the name, from Ste. Anne, at Red River Settlement — a grandfather (or uncle?), father, and son.

1. Jean Baptiste Peron/ Perreault dit Morin Sr. was non-Aboriginal, of Ste. Anne, lot 2-18, family #3899 (born  born 1798, Lower Canada, to Joseph Peron and an unidentified woman) married Marie Charron-Ducharme (Lower Canadian, born 1803 to Francois Ducharme and an unidentified woman).

2. Jean Baptiste Peron/ Perreault dit Morin Jr. was non-Aboriginal, of Ste. Anne, lot 49-66, family #3901 (born 1822 to Baptiste Peron/ Perreault Sr. and Marie Charron-Ducharme) married Catherine Grouette dit Morin (Métis, born 1823 to Antoine Grouette and an unidentified woman in the U.S.)

3. Jean Baptiste Peron/ Perreault dit Morin was Métis, of Ste. Anne living with his parents at lot 49-66 (born 1848 to #3901 Jean Baptiste Peron/ Perreault dit Morin Jr. and Catherine Grouette dit Morin).

[64] Laderoute cited in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 4.

Paul Proulx

Proulx described himself as a guard at Upper Fort Garry, in an entirely voluntary capacity, who was not an officer and who did not report to an officer.[65]

Paul Proulx was non-Aboriginal, of St. Vital, lot 52-58, family #4018 (born 1838/ 1839, Lower Canada, to Paul Proulx and Josephte Mathieu), married Angelique Nault/ Naud (non-Aboriginal, born 1849 to Amable Nault, originally of Lower Canada, and Josephte Lagemoniere, originally of Lower Canada; sister of André Nault).

[65] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 80.

J.-B./ Jean Baptiste ‘Janvier’ Ritchot

Joseph Nolin testified that Ritchot moved at the court martial that Scott be executed. A dubious account alleged that Ritchot was “killed at Pembina” in consequence.[66]

There were two men named Jean Baptiste Ritchot at Red River, father and son — both born in January/ Janvier:

1. Jean Baptiste Ritchot Sr. was Métis, of St. Vital, lot 29, family #4189 (born 1823/ 1825 to #4184 Joseph Antoine Ritchot and Josephte Amiotte/ Guilmot), married Marie Anne Chatelaine (born 1831 to Nicholas Chatelaine/ Chastellaine and Nanette Cartier).

2. Jean Baptiste Ritchot Jr. was Métis, of St. Vital, lot 19-29, family #4180 (born 1847/ 1848 to #4189 Jean Baptiste Richot and Marie Anne Chatelaine), married Elise Haineault (Métis, born 1851 to Charles Haineault and Louise Parisien).

[66] Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 240. Shrive, “Charles Mair, A Document,” Canadian Historical Review (1959), 225.

Francis/ François St. Luc/ St. Luc de Repentigny

Francois St. Luc was Métis, of Ste Anne, lot 5, family #4607 (born 1836 to #4609 Gilbert St Luc/ “St. Luc D’Arpentigny a French Canadian” and Catherine Boucher [Métis]), married to Marie Beriau/ Bariault (Métis, born 1847 to Gilbert Beriau/ Beriault and an unidentified woman).[67]

[67] George F. G. Stanley, Toil and Trouble: Military Expeditions to Red River (Toronto: Dundurn, 1989), 69.

Andre Jerome dit St. Mathe/ St. Matte

According to Laderoute, Jerome was among a party from Pembina, on both sides of the international boundary, who volunteered to the Comite National, offering “their services to defend [the] right of their ‘likes’ or fellowmen.”[68]

Apparently Jerome was one of Thomas Scott’s guards at Upper Fort Garry, who insisted on a Council of War or court martial, because otherwise they would shoot him themselves. (See entry for Damase Harrison above.)

André Jerome dit St. Matte was Metis, of Point Coupée, lot 93 “Near Pembina,” family #4610 (born 4 December 1829 at St. Boniface, to NWC interpreter #4611 Martin Jerome dit St. Matte/ l’ P’chi St. Mathe [born 1799 to NWC Fort Carlton interpreter Pierre Jerome and Virginnia, a Chippewa Cree woman] and Angelique Letendré; baptized 15 December 1829, St. Boniface; one of seven brothers; in 1831 became stepson to father’s 2nd wife, Elizabeth Wilkie, daughter of Alexandre Wilkie), married Marguerite Gosselin (Métis, born 1829/ 1830 to Antoine Gosselin and Marie Roy). The couple had nine children. Their family appeared on both the 1850 and 1860 Pembina census. André Jerome was a buffalo hunter, then worked as a freighter in the annual train of Red River carts from Red River to St. Paul, Minnesota, during the years 1845 to 1870, the last year of the cart drive.

In November 1871, Jerome was arrested and imprisoned in Lower Fort Garry, for allegedly participating in a ‘Fenian Raid,’ in October 1871, on the HBC Pembina Post. In the spring ot 1872, at Winnipeg, Jerome was acquitted of “feloniously and unlawfully levying war against Her Majesty.”[69]

He moved in 1872 to what became Kittson County, Minnesota (and was recognized as the county’s first settler). In the June 1880 and 1900 censuses he was listed in Township 162; in the April 1910 census in Hill Township.[70]

[68] Laderoute quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 9.

[69] Ibid. See also Swan and Jerome, “‘Unequal Justice:’ The Metis in O’Donoghue’s Raid, 1871,” citing Archives of Manitoba, MG3 B18, “Andre Nault depositions,” 383.

[70] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 9-10.

François Thibault

Named by Joseph Nolin as a member of the firing squad at Scott’s execution.[71]

Francois Thibault was Métis, of St. Boniface, lot 77-79, family #4639 (Born 1825 to Francois Thibault and an unidentified woman), married Helene Daigneault (Métis, born to Joseph Daigneault and Genevieve Cameron).

[71] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 57, 67. Duncan Nolin, quoted in Le Métis (31 October  1874), 1, 3,

Hon. Jean-Baptiste Tourond, St. Norbert (north)

Member of the July 1869 patrol that kept an eye on Canadian movements (with Jean Baptiste Lépine above).

On 11 October 1869, Tourond was part of the party to stop Canadians, Adam Clark Webb and crew, from surveying on Andre Nault’s hay privilege. Tourond became one of the original members of Le Comité National des Métis de la Rivière Rouge. Beginning 16 November, as a delegate of St. Norbert parish, he attended the Council of Twenty-four, in the Court House at Upper Fort Garry (ending 1 December). Tourond represented St. Norbert at La Grande Convention/ Convention of Forty (25 January to 10 February 1870) and again in the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia (9 March to 24 June 1870).

Almost immediately after the formation of the province, Tourond was among the group organized by Rev. Ritchot and Joseph Dubuc to lay claim to land along Rivière-aux-Rats for a new parish — to forestall any disallowance of such settlement expansion by anticipated Canadian government surveys. The settlement proved successful, and later became known as St-Pierre-Jolys’.[72]

Jean Baptiste Tourond was Métis, of St. Norbert, lot 42, family #4705 (born June 1, 1838 at St. Boniface, to Joseph Tourond[73] and Rosalie Pontbriand dit Laderoute), married Angélique Delorme (Metis, born 1861 to Joseph Delorme and Brigitte Plouf dit Villebrun).

[72] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 8-9.

[73] Joseph Tourond, according to family lore, “had come with his brother from the neighbourhood of Castle Tourond in France to homestead along the Red River near St. Boniface.” He was first married to Charlotte Gladu.

Edmund/ Edward Turner

Guard.

Turner, “an Irishman,” along with Joseph Delorme, was named as witness against Thomas Scott at his court martial, Turner having been one of Scott’s guards.[74]

Edward Turner was British, of St. James, lot 57, living with his married brother and widowed mother,  family #4985 (born 1848 to George Turner and Ann O’Brien)

[74] See Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 59.

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