Officers

[under construction: Barkwell list to be added]

Louis Riel, Marshall, Comité National des Métis de la Rivière Rouge.

By 20 October 1869, Riel was Secretary of the Comité National des Métis de la Rivière Rouge and acted as Marshall of the ‘Patriot Army.’

Ambroise Dydime Lepine, Adjutant General, Provisional Government[s].

By 20 October 1869, Lepine was one of twelve Councillors elected to the Comité National des Métis de la Rivière Rouge.[1] From the beginning of the Red River Resistance, he acted as Louis Riel’s military lieutenant and chief enforcer.

On 1 November 1869, Lepine, Jean Baptiste Laderoute, and Le Grand Louison Lariviere stopped Joseph Alfred Norbert Provencher and Captain D.R. Cameron of William McDougall’s party of incoming Canadian officials from proceeding past the barricade at Rivière Sale.[2]

Lepine, with Andre Nault and Philbert Laderoute, led the armed party that ordered Lieutenant Governor McDougall out of HBC Pembina Post, away from the Settlement, and back to U.S. territory, on 2 November 1869.[3] Lepine was prominent in the surrenders of Schultz’s Canadian party on 7 December 1869, and of Boulton’s Portage party on 17 February 1870.[4]

Roderick MacBeath described Lepine in 1870 as: “a man of magnificent physique, standing fully six feet three and built in splendid proportion, straight as an arrow, with hair of raven blackness, large aquiline nose and eyes of piercing brilliance; a man of prodigious strength, a skilled roughrider.”[5]

In 1874, Lepine arrested and tried for the ‘murder’ of Thomas Scott. Although sentenced to hang, he was granted an amnesty by the Governor-General of Canada — with the provision that he lose his civil rights (five years banishment from Her Majesty’s Dominions).

Afterwards, Lepine worked as a freighter. Mr. John Grover from the Neepawa area described a Red River cart train that he saw being loaded for a western trip in 1878:

“This train of carts was in charge of Ambrose Lepine, a big, burly, French Metis, who had been one of Louis Riel’s chief lieutenants in the fracas of 1870. There were about fifteen carts, 800 lbs. being a load, and were hauled by an ox or Indian pony, and as many more loose animals were taken along to replace the ones hitched up, when tired, all in charge of three or four men on horse-back…. These carts were built entirely of wood … and as they were never greased you could hear them long before you could see them…. The freight rate for these trains was one cent per mile per hundred pounds so that a sack of flour selling in Winnipeg then at $2.00 would cost $3.00 at Gladstone.”[6]

On 30 March 1889, Lepine left St. Boniface for Paris, to appear in Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show at the Exposition Universelle (Paris Worlds Fair). He was accompanied by Maxime Goulet, Michel Dumas, and Jules Marion. He took with him two Red River Carts, two trains of dogs, and a buffalo gun. Cody took along twenty buffalo and 200 horses. During the show, Lepine, Goulet, Dumas, and Marion played French-Canadien trappers with ‘Eskimo’ sled dogs and built a log cabin. In the finale, the ‘trappers’ were attacked by ‘Indians,’ the cabin set on fire, then Buffalo Bill and his men rode in to save the day.[7]

Lepine died at the St. Boniface General Hospital on 8 June 1923. He is buried in the churchyard of the St. Boniface Cathedral next to Riel. He is commemorated by Lepine Avenue in Winnipeg.

Ambroise Dydime Lépine was Métis, of St. Vital Parish, lot 1, family #2920 (born 1840 at St. Vital, to #2921 Jean Baptiste Berard dit Lepine and Julia Henry; brother of Jean Baptiste Lepine [born 1824] and Maxime Lepine [born 1837]; died 8 June 1923 at St. Boniface), married Cecile Marion (born 1842 to Francois Marion and Angelique Deschamps Moreau). Their children were: Albert, James, Louis Gonzague, Narcisse, Cleophine, Edmond (George), Marie, Marguerite, and Pierre Cadotte (adopted son of Joseph Cadotte and Marie-Jean Emma [Cree]; died 22 May 1908 in Forget, Saskatchewan).

[1] See Hartwell Bowsfield, ed., The James Wickes Taylor Correspondence 1859-1870 (Winnipeg: Manitoba Record Society, 1968), 100, 121. Gerhard Ens, “Lépine, Ambroise Dydime,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography online, implies Lepine was absent and unaware of events at the settlement until 30 October 1869.

[2] Jean Baptiste Laderoute, cited in Lawrence Barkwell, “Personalities of the 1869-70 Resistance, Laderoute’s Dicté,” Louis Riel Institute (2014), 4.

[3] Ibid.; “Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Fort Garry, 1869,” this site.

[4] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 5.

[5] Roderick MacBeath, quoted in Barkwell, “Personalities,” 5.

[6] John Grover, “An Englishman Who Stayed,” The Grain Growers’ Guide (1 August 1926), 20; Barkwell “Personalities,” 5.

[7] Barkwell, “Personalities,” 6.

J.E. Norbert Gay, Captain, Colonel-Commandant.

Said to be formerly of Nice, France, and reputedly fought as a ‘soldier of fortune’ with Giuseppe Garibaldi [the uniform that Gay wore for his photograph is reminiscent of officer garb worn by Garibaldi’s forces]; returned to France at the outbreak of the Franco-Prusian War in 1870, and is said to have become a Colonel of the 3d Republic of France/ Troisième République.[1]

[1] See Peter Charlebois, The life of Louis Riel, Rediscover our stolen history ser. (Toronto: New Canada Publications [NC Press], 1975), 50-51.

Elzéar Goulet, Captain, Lieutenant-General.

By some accounts, “At the time of the insurrection Goulet was named Lieutenant-General of the troops at Fort Garry under Ambroise Lépine, the comander-in-chief,” and he has been described as “second in command”; Joseph Nolin testified that Goulet was among those who voted in favour of Thomas Scott‘s execution at his court martial. Rev. Young named Goulet as among those who led Thomas Scott to execution.

Born 1840; married to Helene-Sarah St. Matte/ St. Mathe Jerome; farmed at lot 97–101 St. Boniface Parish with his wife and children. Murdered by affiliates of John C. Schultz in 1870.[2]

[2] Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986), 240, 424 n. 2; and J.A. Jackson, “Goulet, Elzéar,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography online [DCB], identify Goulet’s rank as above that of captain. John Bruce, quoted in Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 60; see also 46. Sprague and Fry, Genealogy.

Patrice Breland, Captain, “Envoy to the Plains.”

Breland’s father was, by adoption and marriage, brother-in-law to Henry McDermott — the brother of Mary Sarah ‘Sally’ McDermott who was the wife of HBC Gov. William Mactavish at Upper Fort Garry. Patrice was in turn related by marriage to William Dease (the uncle of Patrice’s wife, Helen Dease), who was opposed to the installation of a provisional government at Red River.

The Canadian Party apparently hoped that Patrice Breland could be counted as a supporter, although he had been a member of the Convention of Twenty-four in November of 1869, and by 26 February 1870 his allegiance was clearly to the Provisional Government. As early as 7 April 1870, he was tasked with going out onto the plains to tell the winterers (including those in his father, Pascal Breland‘s camp of Qu’Appelle buffalo hunters), that there was peace in the settlement and HBC trade business would be open as usual.

Patrice Breland was also appointed by the Provisional Government to the position of magistrate for the White Horse Plains district.[3]

[3] See “Convention of Twenty-four,” this site; “Letter from Pierre Leveille,” to the editor, translation, dated White Horse Plains, 25 May 1870, New Nation News 27 May 1870, this site; Alexander Begg, Red River Journal, 323, 324, 352; Isaac Cowie, The Company of Adventurers: A Narrative of Seven Years in the Service of the Hudson’s Bay Company during 18671874 (Toronto: William Briggs, 1913), 391–392, 395, 398, 401–406, 412; Colin Inkster, cited in “The Toronto Telegraph’s ‘Own Correspondent,’” New Nation (23 July 1870), 2; also “A Flat Denial, Own Correspondent’s Fables!” New Nation (23 July 1870), 2; “Our Conciliatory Tone,” New Nation (23 July 1870), 2; Mary Sarah ‘Sally’ McDermott Mactavish, this site; Gerhard Ens, Homeland to Hinterland, 133.

Joseph Delorme, Captain.

Joseph Nolin testified that Delorme voted in favour of the execution of Thomas Scott.[4]

[4] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 60, 64, indicate that Joseph Delorme  was identified by John Bruce as escorting Scott to the execution. See also Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 240.

There were a number of men named Joseph Delorme at Red River Settlement in 1870. Additionally, one Joesph Delorme had died in 1869, and another had apparently died some time before that. Different sources make varied claims about which Joseph Delorme was a captain in the Red River Settlement guard — most attempt to link him with the Joseph Delorme at Batoche in 1885, but primarily by assertion (or reliance on the assumption that records are always unproblematic), and do little to address the issue of nominal duplication.

For example, Peter J. Gagné, French Canadians of the West: A Biographical Dictionary of French-Canadians and French Métis of the Western United States and Canada, 3 vol.s (Qunitin Publications, 2000), states that the Joseph Delorme of the Red River Settlement Guard:

“later removed to Saskatchewan and was chosen along with Patrice Tourond to be a lieutenant of Gabriel Dumont, the military leader of the North-West Rebellion. Delorme took part in the Battle of Duck Lake on 26 March 1885 and ‘during the entire combat, Delorme was at my side, fighting like a lion,’ according to Dumont. When Dumont was felled with a wound to the head, Delorme cried out that he had been killed, but Dumont assured him that his wound was not fatal. In his diary entry for 19 April 1885, Louis Riel records a ‘revelation’ in which he notes, ‘If Joseph Delorme had been out scouting, it seems to me that he would have been caught or surprised.’ There is no evidence to substantiate if this event actually happened, or if Riel was simply stressing the need for order and security. Despite the part he played in the North-West Rebellion, Delorme was one of those who were released by the courts at the end of the hostilities. He was convicted of treason-felony, but was released on his own recognizance. Delorme had already been exposed to the Canadian justice system once before, in 1874, for his part in Thomas Scott’s death.”

However, Gangé does not indicate how he determined which Joseph Delorme did what.

In my opinion:

• There might have been more than one Joseph Delorme in the Red River guard of 1869–1870.

• Captain Joseph Delorme 1870 and Lieutenant Joseph Delorme 1885 might well be two distinct individuals.

• It is possible that there was more than one man named Joseph Delorme in the North-West, who might have become involved with the conflicts of 1885 to greater or lesser degrees.

According to trial testimony in 1885, the Joseph Delorme arrested at Batoche apparently did not understand English or Cree, while the other 24 accused understood Cree. Although he was identified as having come from Manitoba, there were conflicting assertions about his willingness to have anything to do with Riel [e.g.; e.g.]. Some sources state he arrived at Batoche in 1882, others that he settled at Fish Creek (Tourond’s Coulee) [see also #4 Joseph Delorme below]; the name Joseph Delorme  appears on a petition from St. Antoine du Padue (Batoche), South Saskatchewan in 1882; but as well on a petition from Qu’Appelle Settlement (St-Florent/ Lebret) dated 1881 [see also #6 Joseph Delorme below] and a petition from Cypress Hills (Hunter’s Settlement/ Chimney Coulee) in 1878.

The entries below represent a sorting through of the various Joseph Delormes (using D.N. Sprague and R.P. Frye, The genealogy of the first Metis nation : the development and dispersal of the Red River Settlement, 1820-1900 (Winnipeg: Peguis, 1983), as a starting point, and building as I go [expect the list below to change]). Possible candidates for the position of captain in the settlement guards are shown in green.

#0. Joseph Delorme, b. 1810, d. ___; married Marie Lafournaise, b. 1812, d. ___.

Sprague and Frye, Genealogy, ID #1109 — listed once, perhaps an error. I have found no other reference.

#1. Joseph Enau/ Enno/ Enaud/ Eynaud/ Henault dit Delorme (French Canadian and/or Métis), born c. 1799, died 17 August 1869; married Brigitte Plouf dit Villebrun (Métis), b. 1805, d. ___. They lived at lot 75–76, St. Norbert Parish.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Brigite; wife of Joseph Delorme; born: 1805; father: Louis Villebrun (French Canadian); mother: Marianne (Indian); claim no.: 1814; date of issue: Sept. 20, 1876 = ; MIKAN 1500345.

Their son is #2 Joseph Delorme below (he had 13 siblings).

Their son, Alexis Delorme, married Helen Frederick dit Paul and had a son #3 Joseph Delorme, born 1851 at St. Norbert and later married to Madeleine Dupuis.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Joseph; born: 1851; father: Alexis Delorme; mother: Helene Frederick =

Their daughter, Angelique Delorme, was married to Hon. Jean-Baptiste Tourond, St. Norbert (north).

Scrip affidavit for Tourons, Angélique; born: 1845; husband: Baptiste Tourond; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Brigitte Villebrun (Métis); claim no: 1945; scrip no: 10842; date of issue: 20 September 1846; amount: $160 = 

#2. Joseph Delorme, b. 26 December 1821, d. ___; married Angelique ‘Angele’ Courchene/ Courchesne, b. 25 December 1827, d. ___. He is a good candidate for the position of captain of the Red River Settlement guard.

By 1870, Joseph Delorme and Angele Courchene farmed at lot 47 St. Norbert Parish. They resided there to at least 1875, but, because they did not take out a patent on their property in 1883, they appear to have relocated sometime previous. According to scrip applications, some of their children lived at Ste. Agathe/ Pointe a Grouette. This might, therefore, be the Joseph Delorme who, in 1878 paid  $550 for lot 533 Ste. Agathe (formerly the property of Louis Riel, who had purchased it from Cyrille Dumas). In 1880, a Joseph Delorme took out the patent on the land. Having established title to the land, it is likely he stayed there. Nevertheless, by some accounts this was the Joseph Delorme at Batoche — perhaps confusing him with Joseph Delorme and Angelique Courchene’s son, who is #4 Joseph Delorme below.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Sr. Joseph; born: December 26, 1821; father: Joseph Delorme (French Canadian); mother: Brigitte Vilbrun (Métis); claim no.: 1804; date of issue: September 20, 1876 =

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Angele; wife of Joseph Delorme Sr.; born: Dec. 25, 1827; father: Francois Courchene (French Canadian); mother: Francoise Beauchamp (Métis); claim no.: 1805; date of issue: Sept. 20, 1876 =; MIKAN 1500341

Note: the scrip records of the four children below (and the other eight listed in a genealogy) indicate that this is not the same family as #9 Joseph ‘Kar-yence’ Delorme and Angelique Gingras (below) — although there is room for confusion.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Sarah; born: August 5, 1849; father: Joseph Delorme; mother: Angele Courchene = ; MIKAN 1500387

Sarah was a Grey Nun/ Sister of Charity at the general hospital, St. Boniface; died 1882.

Scrip affidavit for Bellefeuille, Philomene; Wife of Raphael Bellefeuille; born: July 13, 1851; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Angele Courchenes (Métis); claim no: 2890; scrip no.: 12383; date of issue: Dec. 10, 1878 =; MIKAN 1499474

Philomene was born at St. Norbert in 1851, and resided there in 1870. Nevertheless, she is elsewhere listed as Philome Delaum, with children, one of whom was born “1870, enrolled in, Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota.” In that source, her mother is listed as Angeline Gingras — a surmise based on “GENEALOGY: Minnesota Historical Society, R.J. Powell Papers, Microf. M-455, Roll 10, Powell Genealogies”; and “NARA Film M-595, roll 161: Turtle Mountain Chippewa Mixed-blood, Devil’s Lake rolls, 1906:327-794/866.” Her husband received a land grant in Manitoba, 1881.

Ahnishinahbæótjibway author, Wub-E-Ke-Niew, cautions in “Appendix IV – The Red Lake genealogies,” that some of those records “are inaccurate — in my own family, I have found that certain Métis testified in such a way as to make themselves eligible for estates to which they were not heirs.  With regard to B.I.A. [Bureau of Indian Affairs] records in general, it is strongly recommended that a person doing genealogy verify B.I.A. information, cross-checking it with that from other sources.”

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Joseph; born: August 30, 1855; father: Joseph Delorme; mother: Angélique Courchene =; LAC, MIKAN 1500367:

See #4 Joseph Delorme below.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Angelique; born: 2 June 1857; father: Joseph Delorme; mother: Angele Courchene =; LAC, “MIKAN 1500342

Angelique was residing at Ste. Agathe in 1875, and was educated, signing her own name.

#3. Joseph Delorme, born 1851 at St. Norbert to Alexis Delorme and Helene Frederick; married, some time after 1870, Madeleine Dupuis [?]. He was too young to be given the rank of captain in the Red River Settlement guard.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Joseph; born: 1851; father: Alexis Delorme; mother: Helene Frederick =

#4. Joseph Delorme was born at St. Norbert in 1855 to #2 Joseph Delorme and Angelique Courchene. He was too young to be given the rank of captain in the Red River Settlement guard. By 20 years of age (1875), he was farming at Ste. Agathe. He married Elise Braconnier, and they left Manitoba, settling at Fish Creek/ Tourond’s Coulee [SK].

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Joseph; born: August 30, 1855; father: Joseph Delorme; mother: Angélique Courchene =; LAC, MIKAN 1500367:

Delorme, Joseph; for his son Roger Delorme; claim no. 228; born: 30 November, 1884 at Fish Creek; address: St. Rose; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Elise Branconnier (Métis); scrip cert.: form E, no. 2876 =

#5. Joseph Delorme, born 1838, to François Delorme and Angelique Malaterre. He was a brother to an Urbain Delorme of St. François-Xavier Parish, Red River Settlement. Scrip records present something of a quandary: although he apparently applied for scrip in 1875, his children’s applications of the same year indicate he died “before the transfer” of Rupert’s Land to Canada.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Joseph; born: 1838; father: Francois Delorme (Métis); mother: Angelique Malaterre (Métis); claim no.: 1145; scrip no.: 10089; date of issue: August 20, 1876; amount: $160 =

Note: His parents married 25 June 1832 at St. Boniface. His father, François Delorme, is described as the son of François Henault dit Delorme and Charlotte, an Ojibwe woman. The parents of His mother, Angelique Malaterre were Baptiste Malaterre and Angelique Adam.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Angelique; wife of Francoise Delorme; born: 2 January 1825 [sic: 1815?]; father: Baptiste Malaterre (Métis); mother: Angelique Adam (Métis); claim no.: 1144; scrip no.: 10088; date of issue: Aug. 20, 1876; amount: $160 =

He married Mary Anne Gariepy, born 1838, died 1860.  They lived at lot 11–13 St. Francois-Xavier. He could have been, but was perhaps not, a member of the Red River Settlement guard, depending on whether he  died some time before 1869–1870 or not. If he did die, then he obviously could not been a participant in the 1885 Resistance — though his son, #6 Joseph Gregoire Delorme, might well have heen.

Note: Some genealogies  seem to confuse the father and grandfather of the Joseph Delorme married to Marie Anne Gariepy: showing his father as François Henault dit Delorme and Charlotte, an Ojibwe woman. However, Charlotte died in 1835 (at St. François-Xavier). The genealogies seem to compensate by adjusting Joseph Delorme’s birthdate back to 1831. I have yet to find supporting records for this family configuration, but see Doris J. MacKinnon, The Identities of Marie Rose Delorme Smith: Portrait of a Metis Woman, 1861-1960 (Canadian Plains research Centre, 2012), 121; and one online genealogy.

The scrip application of a daughter, Christine Delorme, attests that #5 Joseph Delorme died “before the transfer” of Assiniboia/ Rupert’s Land to Canada.

Scrip affidavit for Tellier, Christine; born: 1851; husband: Joseph Tellier (Deceased); father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Marie Anne Gariepy (Métis); wish to partake in allotment and distribution of land set apart for Métis children =

The scrip application of the son of Joseph Delorme and Marie Anne Gariepy — #6 Joseph Gregoire Delorme (below), born c. 1851/ 1852 — indicates that he had been an orphan in 1870, living with his uncle, Urbain Delorme.

#6. Joseph Gregoire Delorme, born c. 1851/ 1852 to #5 Joseph Delorme and Marie Anne Gariepy. He was an orphan by 1870 and living with his uncle, Urbain Delorme of St. François-Xavier Parish. Given his age in 1870 (not yet 21), he was unlikely to have been appointed to the rank of captain in the Red River Settlement guard. He married Mélanie Lafrenière, and was with his wife at Duck Lake [SK] by 1877. They returned to White Horse Plains [MB] in 1880, but were at Lebret [SK] by 1881 and apparently remained there to at least 1885.

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Joseph; born: Summer 1852; father: Joseph Delorme; mother: Marie Anne Gariepy; note: orphan child living with his uncle Urbain Delorme =

Delorme, Joseph; heir to his deceased daughter, Rose Delorme; claim no. 796; address: LeBret; born: 20 April, 1877 at Duck Lake; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis and deponent); mother: Melanie Lafreniere (Métis); died: when 2 days old; scrip cert.: form F, no. 1778 =; MIKAN 1508654.

Delorme, Moise; address: LeBret; claim no. 671; born: 24 May, 1880 at White Horse Plains; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Mélanie Lafrenière (Métis); scrip cert.: form E, no. 514 =

Delorme, Marie Rose; address: LeBret; claim no. 634; born: 1881 at LeBret; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Mélanie Lafrenière (Métis); scrip cert.: form E, no. 484 =

Delorme, Victoire; address: LeBret; claim no. 636; born: 1884 at LeBret; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Mélanie Lafrenière (Métis); scrip cert.: form C, no. 386 =

Delorme, Flora; address: LeBret; claim no. 635; born: 1885 at Le Bret; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Mélanie Lafrenière (Métis); scrip cert.: form C, no. 384 =

#7. Joseph-Louis ‘Amable’ Fafard dit Delorme, born c. 1795 (Lower Canada to Joseph Fafard dit Delorme and Charlotte Beaupre Brisette), d. ___; married c. 1813/ 1814/ 1815 to Josephte ‘Josette’ Belisle/ Beleisle/ Belly/ Billy, born c. 1786 (to Antoine Belisle and Josephte, a First Nations woman, possibly Cree), previously married to James McMillan/ McMullen, she died 1876, St. James [MB]. [See genealogy 1, and genealogy 2]. This Joseph Delorme was too old to have served in the Settlement guard.

Scrip affidavit for McMullen, William; born: 1806; father: James McMullen (Scot); mother: Josette Beleisle (Métis); claim no: 914; scrip no: 6921 to 6928; date of issue: July 12, 1876; amount; $160 =

Scrip affidavit for Delorme, Pierre; born: October 1, 1832; father: Joseph Delorme (French Canadian); mother: Josephte Belisle (Métis); claim no.: 1798; date of issue: September 20, 1876 =

Their son was #8 Pierre-Joseph ‘Akkway/ Aughuhk-quay/ Aughkwea/ Akahkway’ Fafard dit Delorme, born c. 1815/ 1822.

8. Pierre-Joseph ‘Aughuhk-quay/ Aughkwea/ Akahkway/ Akkway/‘ Fafard dit Delorme, born c. 1815/ 1822 (to #7 Joseph Delorme above), died 5 July 1874.

He married Isabelle Gourneau/ Garneau/ Grenon, born c. 1803/ 1818 (to Joseph  ‘Little Thunder‘ or ‘Kashpaw‘ Grenon/ Gourneau and Angelique ‘Kwayzanchewin’ Folle-Avoine, widow of Chief Manomen/ Manominfe/ Minomin Gay-tey/ Wild Rice/ Old Wild Rice); Isabelle died 1 My 1904 St. Charles MB.

[See Charlie White Weasel, “Old Wild Rice: The Great Chief, Genesis of the Pembina/ Turtle Mountain Chippewa” 2nd ed. (1988; repr., self-published, 1990).]

Although more closely associated with Pembina, U.S., Joseph Aughuhk-quay Delorme is a plausible candidate for a captain in the Red River Settlement guard. He was familiar with the settlement (having been baptised there in 1833, at St. Boniface for example).

His family was listed as #96 in the 1850 census at Pembina, U.S. He took annuities and scrip (Half Breed Scrip #218) under the 1863 Red Lake and Pembina Treaties. In 1868 he took annuities under Little Shell’s Band for himself, 2 women and 6 children (he was a counselor to Chiefs Little Shell II and III); in 1867 he took annuities under Way-ke-ge-ke-zhick’s Band for himself, 1 woman and 6 children.

Some researchers have confused his son, #9 Joseph ‘Kar-yence’ Delorme and wife Angelique Gingras (below), with  #2. Joseph Delorme and Angelique ‘Angele’ Courchene/ Courchesne (above).

Joseph Aughuhk-quay Delorme and some family members were said to have been murdered ‘by the Sioux’ on 5 July 1874, during a livestock robbery  at their home near ‘Hair Hills’/ St. Joseph/ ‘St. Joe’, Leroy, Dakota Territory, U.S. One man, Wapesa/ ‘Brave Bear,’ was arrested but released and no one was ever tried or convicted for the crime. [See Lawrence Barkwell, “Story of the Delorme Massacre.”]

If Joseph Aughuhk-quay Delorme had been the Captain Joseph Delorme who voted for the execution of Thomas Scott in 1870, then the 1874 murder might figure among the revenge killings called for by John C. Schultz and conducted by his supporters.

9. Joseph ‘Kar-yence’ Delorme, born March 1838/ c. 1842, at Red River, to #8 Joseph Delorme and Isabelle Gourneau Wild Rice. He  married 20 May 1864 to Angelique Gingras, the daughter of Antoine Blanc Gingras and Scholastique Trottier (Angelique was also the sister of François Gingras of St. John’s Parish). This Joseph Delorme served as a counsellor  to Chief Little Shell III. He makes a good candidate for the position of Captain of the Red River Settlement guard — assuming he was available, and not out on the plains with a winter hunt. He died c. 1913.

Scrip affidavit for Gingras, François; born: April 1844; father: Antoine Gingras (Métis); mother: Scholastique Trottier (Métis); claim no: 1707; scrip no: 10609; date of issue: September 20, 1876 =

Note: Some accounts suggest that Angelique Gingras was also listed as Angeline Courchene:

a) when Joseph ‘Kar-yence’ Delorme received annuities and scrip (Half Breed Scrip #239) under the 1863 “Old Crossing Treaty,” between the United States and “chiefs and headmen” of the Red Lake and Pembina Bands of Chippewa Indians concluded October 2, 1863 – amended April 12, 1964; and

b) when in 1868 he took annuities under Way-ke-ge-ke-zhick’s Band for himself, 1 woman and 2 children.

However, this is at odds with the scrip applications for #2 Joseph Delorme above, as well as with other genealogical information on Angelique Gingras. [See also Ojibwe.Info, http://www.ojibwe.info/Ojibwe/HTML/people/p00000zx.htm#I30396, and the disclaimer as to accuracy].

And, the son of Joseph Delorme and Angeline Gingras who is #10 Joseph Delorme, born “23 SEP 1868, enrolled in, Turtle Mountain, Band of Chippewa, ND,” was younger than the son — #4 Joseph Delorme — of #2 Joseph Delorme and Angele Courchene.

11. Joseph Delorme, born 1849 (some genealogies state born 1 January, others state 2 or 4 February), at St. François-Xavier to Urbain-François Henault dit Delorme Sr. and Madeleine Vivier. He makes a decent candidate for a captain in the Red River Settlement Guard, though not perfect, as he would have been exceptionally young to have been given that responsibility, being only 21 years of age. By some accounts Joseph died c. 1899 near Black Foot Crossing [AB].

Affidavit No. 5974 re claim Joseph Delorme parents Urbain and Madeliene Delorme born 1852 NE¼ of 16 W½ of NW¼ 15-10-3-W1 [See also genealogy 1 and genealogy 2]

He married 9 February 1875 at Saint François-Xavier to Eliza/ Liza/ Lizette/ Louise McLeod (born 1854 to Joseph McLeod and Angelique Lepine). Liza afterwards married a Quesnelle.

[Additional, confusing records:

HALFBREED CLAIM OF ELIZA MCLEOD1905. File. RG15-D-II-1.

Affidavit No. 5973 re claim of Lizette McLeod now wife of Joseph Delorme parents Joseph McLeod and Lizette Lapierre born Nov. 1854 SW¼ and S½ of NW¼ 6-10-7-W1.]

Quesnelle, Liza; (formerly wife of Joseph Delorme; for her deceased daughter, May Jane Delorme; address: Medicine Hat; born: 2 May, 1878 at Fort Walsh; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Liza McLeod (Métis and deponent); died: October, 1881 at Fort Walsh; heirs: Liza Quesnelle; scrip cert.: form D, no. 1154 for $80.00; Joseph Delorme, scrip cert.: form D, no. 1156 for $80.00; Annie Bourston, scrip cert.: form D, no. 3245 for $60.00; William Delorme, scrip cert.: form D, no. 3246 for $20.00; claim no. 1161

Joseph Delorme and Liza McLeod do not seem to have a record of a land-owning connection to Red River Settlement. Their children appear to have been born in the North-West:

Delorme, Joseph; address: Medicine Hat; claim no. 1191; born: 3 April, 1882 at Cypress Hills; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Eliza McLeod (Métis); scrip cert.: form C, no. 750 =

Delorme, William; address: Medicine Hat; claim no. 1190; born: 1885 at Calgary; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Eliza McLeod (Métis); scrip cert.: form C, no. 748 =

Quesnelle, Liza; (formerly wife of Joseph Delorme; for her deceased son, Corbett Delorme; born: 1 August, 1885 at Calgary; died: February, 1886 at Calgary; address: Medicine Hat; father: Joseph Delorme (Métis); mother: Liza McLeod (Métis and deponent); heirs: Liza Quesnelle, scrip cert.: form D, no. 1198 for $60.00; Annie Burston, scrip cert.: form D, no. 1200 for $60.00; Joseph Delorme, scrip cert.: form D, no. 1202 for $60.00; William Delorme, scrip cert.: form D, no. 1204 for $60.00; claim no. 1241

Even though the family of #11 Joseph Delorme was associated with lands further west, a number of authors, including Lawrence Barkwell, “Families of the 1885 Resistance,” and Doris J. MacKinnon, The Identities of Marie Rose Delorme Smith: Portrait of a Metis Woman, 1861-1960 (Canadian Plains research Centre, 2012), 15, 16, 122, state that this was the Joseph Delorme arrested at Batoche.

Mackinnon also states that this was the Joseph Delorme who voted at the trial of Thomas Scott, but she does not supply documentation to establish that linkage.

Some sources indicate that he was known as Joseph ‘com Capetain’ Delorme, but whether that was a name carried to Batoche or conferred upon him in 1885 is not clear (and some sources ascribe the nickname to a much younger Joseph Delorme).

Hon. Pierre Delorme, Pointe-Coupée, Captain

Of Pointe Coupée, elected to the Convention of Forty and the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia; by some accounts, “As a captain of the Métis, he captured Major Charles Arkoll Boulton, Thomas Scott, and others during the aborted attempt by the Canadian party to retake Upper Fort Garry (Winnipeg) in mid February 1870.” He is also alleged to have “left Riel’s government because he disagreed with the intended execution of Boulton.” However the debates of the Legislative Assembly indicate that he remained with the government as an honourable member of that legislature.

Implied by Baptiste Charette as having given the signal to fire at the execution of Thomas Scott, but later Charette said it was Ambroise Lepine who did so. Delorme was also reputed to have seconded the motion at the court martial to execute Scott.[10]

[10] Fred J. Shore, “Delorme, Pierre,” DCB. Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 46, 67, 68, indicate Rev. Young identified a man named Nault as leading Thomas Scott to execution. Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 240.

[?] Deschamps, Captain.[5]

Some histories, based on Alexander Begg, mention a Deschamps, but, in his testimony of 1874 Narcisse Marion merely mentioned that a man named Deschamps appeared drunk on 4 March 1870.

If there was a Captain Deschamps, he was perhaps not Francois Rabasca Deschamps Jr. (born 1845, St. Vital Parish to Francois Deschamps dit Rabasca and Marguerite Canada dit Heneault), because he had apparently left the settlement in 1855.

Deschamps, François, Jr. – Concerning his claim as a Métis head of family – Address, Edmonton – Born, 1845 at St. Vital – Father, François Deschamps alias Rabasca, (Métis) – Mother, Marguerite Canada alias Hainaut, (Métis) – Married, 1867 at St. Albert to LaLouise Courtoreille, second wife Virginie Deschamps – Children living, six (names on declaration) – Children deceased, two – Scrip for $160 – Claim 448 =

but possibly his father, or,

Possibly Jean-Baptiste Rabasca Deschamps, born c. 1850 at Red River; married 1871 at Fort Edmonton, to Marguerite Bérard (born 1856 Red River).

or Baptiste Deschamps who married Isabelle Henry.

Deschamps, Madeleine – Concerning her claim as a child – Address, Calgary – Born, 1859 at St. François Xavier – Father, Baptiste Deschamps, (Métis) – Mother, Isabelle Henry, (Métis) – Married, 1882 at Wood Mountain to Napoleon Turcotte – Children living, two, Marie Louise born 1884 and Antoine born 1885 – Scrip for $240 – Claim 380 =

or one of the Joseph Deschamps [Sr. and Jr.],

Deschamps, Joseph – Concerning his claim as a head of family – Address, Edmonton – Born, 1816 at Pembina, North West Territories – Father, Joseph Deschamps, (Métis) – Mother, Marie Breland, (Métis) – Married, 1840 at St. Boniface to Rose Berger – Children living, three (names on declaration) – Children deceased, three – Scrip for $160 – Claim 446 =

possibly the Joseph Deschamps who was married to LaRose Dumont and was at Red River in 1857.

Deschamps, Marie Joséphine – Concerning her claim as a child – Address, Fort Saskatchewan – Born, 1857 at Red River Settlement – Father, Joseph Deschamps, (Métis) – Mother, LaRose Dumont, (Métis) – Married, 1872 at Victoria to James Anderson – Children living, three, Charles, Bella and Louisa – Children deceased, three – Scrip for $240 – Claim 1023 =

[5] Narcisse Marion, quoted in Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 75. Begg might have confused stories about a Deschamps’ involvement in the events of 1816 with gossip about events of 1870.

Michel Dumas/ Dumais ‘Jr.’, Captain.[6]

There were three generations of Michel Dumas at Red River, the two younger generations known as ‘Jr.’

Scrip affidavit for Dumas Jr., Michel; born: January 29, 1828; father: Michel Dumas Sr. (French Canadian); mother: Josette Sanceau (Métis); claim no.: 647; date of issue: June 22, 1876 =

Scrip affidavit for Dumas, Michel Jr.; born: 1 December 1849; father: Michel Dumas Sr. (Métis); mother: Adelaide L’Espérance =

Attempting to sort identities presents some confusion:

One genealogy indicates the elder Michel Dumas/ Dumais ‘Jr.’  born c. 1828 (to Michel Dumas Sr. and Josephte Sancheau-Contree dit Contre), married Adelaide Lesperance. Their son, the younger  Michel Dumas Jr., was born 1 December 1849 at St. Boniface Parish, Red River Settlement, and married Veronique Ouellette.

Another genealogy indicates a Michel Dumas ‘Sr.’ (Métis), was born 29 January 1828, St. Boniface (to Michel Dumas Sr. and Josephte Contrit), married Adelaide Lespérance (Métis) in 1848, at St. Boniface, and died 29 August 1889, at Posen, Manitoba. Their son, Michel Dumas ‘Jr.’, was born 1 December 1849, farmed at St. Boniface, and married Veronique Ouellette.

According to Lawrence Barkwell, “Veterrans and Families of the 1885 Northwest Resistance,” Michel Dumas was at Batoche with wife Veronique Ouellette. This would appear to be the Michel Dumas who actively participated with Gabriel Dumont.

According to yet another genealogy, however, “French Canadians, Michel Dumas [son of Michel Dumas Sr. and Marguerite Leclerc] and Henriette Landry” at Red River, had a son Michel Dumas who fought alongside Gabriel Dumont at Batoche, as “second in command” and escaped to Montana.

No one has established a documentary link between the Michel Dumas at Batoche the Michel Dumas in the Red River guard.

[6] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 6476, 77, indicate Dumas self-identified as only a soldier at Upper Fort Garry.

Hugh S. Donaldson, Captain.

American, merchant at the Town of Winnipeg, who dealt in “Book; Stationery, Fancy and Toy line of business,” along with running a lending library. Appointed captain in response to rumours of a threat from the Sioux that were in circulation by late November 1869.[7]

[7] “The Sioux! Winnipeg in Arms! The First Appearance of the Canadian Allies,” The New Nation (7 January 1870), 2.

Hon. William Bernard O’Donoghue, St. Boniface, Captain.

He is mentioned as riding at the head of the cavalry in company with A.-D. Lépine on 17 February 1870.[8]

[8] See “The Revolution,” New Nation (18 February 1870), continued. Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 38, 39, 59, likewise put O’Donoghue at the head of a party of about 45 men, with Lepine, although O’Donoghue “seemed to be in charge,” and indicates John Bruce identified O’Donoghue’s rank while testifying at the Lepine trial in 1874.

François Poitras, Captain (Cavalry).[9]

There were at least two men of the name.

The elder was born 1825 to Baptiste Poitras and Margurite Grant; married Magdeleine Fisher; lived at lot 113 St. Boniface Parish.

Scrip affidavit for Poitras, Francois; born: 17 Feb. 1825; father: Baptiste Poitras (French Canadian); mother: Marguerite Grant (Métis); claim no: 778; scrip no: 6065 to 6072; date of issue: July 12, 1876; amount: $160 =

The younger was born 1848 to Pierre Poitras and Marie Bruyere; married Catherine Ducharme; lived at lot 95 St. François-Xavier Parish.

Scrip affidavit for Poitras, Francois; born: 20 Feb. 1848; father: Pierre Poitras (Métis); mother: Marie Briere (Métis); claim no: 1426; scrip no: 10370; date of issue: Aug. 21, 1876; amount: $160 =

[9] Elliott and Brokovski, Preliminary Investigation and Trial, 64.

John Cyr, Lieutenant (Cavalry).[10]

There were at least two men of the name. The eldest was born 1825. The captain in the guard was possibly Jean/ John Cyr, born 14 February 1849, Red River Settlement to Jean/ ‘John’ Cyr and Marie Boucher; married to Madeleine Morin Perreault on 17 January 1871 at Ste Anne, Manitoba.

[10] See “The Cavalry,” New Nation (3 May 1870). Allen Roneghan, “James Farquharson – Agent and Agitator,” Manitoba History 17 (spring 1989), notes “a young man named Cyr” was brutally attacked after the creation of Manitoba. See also Aftermath: The ‘Reign of Terror’, this site.

Hon. Hugh Francis Olone, 1st Lieutenant.

Formerly a captain in the Union Army during the American Civil War. First appointed to the Red River settlement guard in response to rumours of a threat from the Sioux in late November 1869. Later a member of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia, elected to represent the Town of Winnipeg. Murdered, likely by affiliates of John C. Schultz, in 1871.[11]

[11] “The Sioux! Winnipeg in Arms! The First Appearance of the Canadian Allies,” The New Nation (7 January 1870), 2; “Aftermath: The ‘Reign of Terror’,” this site.

Henry Martin Robinson, 2nd Lieutenant/ “Major”

Appointed in response to rumours of a threat from the Sioux in late November 1869. Robinson was born c. 1845, and before arriving at Red River (perhaps as early as 1862), had lived in Ashland, Ohio. He is designated ‘Maj. Robinson’ by some historians, and a Major Robinson is mentioned in New Nation (8 April 1870): 2. He is also referred to as  ‘Col. Robinson’ by other historians, but the latter would seem to be a conflation of his identity with that of his brother, Col.  John F. Robison, who built a hotel at Pembina for American troops who were expected to arrive there in the spring of 1870. [See Red River Newspaper Chronology and the men who ‘made’ the news, this site.][12]

[12] “The Sioux! Winnipeg in Arms!” 2. “Arrival of the Steamboat. An Exciting Time,” Nor’-Wester (28 May 1862), 3, reported an H. Robinson among the passengers aboard the International.

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Responses

  1. Confused on the dates regarding Francois Delorme married to Angelique Malaterre. Angelique, b. 2 Jan 1825 according to scrip records was married on 25 Jun 1832 according to info noted above. She would have been only 7 years old!!

    • Thank you for catching the discrepancy Linda. I have not confirmed the source of the problem, but it appears to me that the scrip record is at fault. It indicates a birth year of 1825, but other sources give 1815. See the discussion at Rootsweb, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/QUEBEC-RESEARCH/2008-08/1218146495

      I have adjusted the entry above to better reflect uncertainty. Please let me know if you find evidence that explains things one way or another.

      Norma

  2. Having a Joseph Delorme in my genealogy I have always been curious if he was the one involved in the court martial of Scott.
    Regarding Joseph ” Akway ” Delorme killed by Dakota/Sioux Indians near St. Joe in 1874 referred to as the ” Delorme massacre ” also killed was his son-in-law Jean Baptiste Morin, son of Antoine Morin and Therese Larocque. Jean Baptiste’s brother Charles Joseph Larocque served as an interpreter for the NWMP. He is listed as Joseph Morin in most documents and was also known widely as Caillou Morin through out his life. He served as interpreter at the 1885 trials in Regina and states on his scrip affidavit that his house was burnt down on account of his activities. It may also be possible that Joseph ” Caillou Morin or his father Antoine served as interpreter when Sitting Bull crossed the medicine line .
    Alexander Begg states at one point that the Nolins and Morins were deposed to be independent of Riel.
    My suggestion or supposition is that if members of the Metis moderate faction worked, travelled and married amongst other Metis families with similar political leanings this may also serve to eliminate Joseph ” Akway ” Delorme as a member of the Scott court martial. I also think it highly unlikely that John C. Shultz had the connections with the Dakota to arrange a revenge killing.
    Which Joseph Delorme sat on Scott’s court martial is a very intriguing question and I congratulate you on your extensive research into this matter.

    Murray Hamilton

  3. Hi Norma. Thank you for your extensive work and this amazing website. I’ve very much enjoyed perusing it to assist with my family’s genealogy and general Canadian history… especially as you include so many of your references. Stunning thoroughness, thank you!

    I did catch one issue above that I think may be an error. On the information for “11. Joseph Delorme, born 1849, at St. François-Xavier to Urbain-François Henault dit Delorme Sr. and Madeleine Vivier.”… in listing his wife, you currently have: “He married Eliza/ Liza/ Lizette/ Louise McLeod, born 9 February 1875 at Saint François-Xavier, to Joseph McLeod and Angelique Lepine.”

    You’ve included an attachment for an affidavit attached that gives her birth year as 1854 and the listing of their children whose births start in 1878. I have what you show as her birth date as their wedding date, although I’ll freely admit my information comes from what has turned out to be a fairly suspect source and I continue to research this. At any rate, she can’t be both born in 1875 and having children by 1878.

    Thank you again!
    Nancy G.

    • Thank you for your kind note and thanks for catching the mistake — it will be corrected


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