The ‘Canadian Party’ Attack on Assiniboia: Annexation vs. Confederation

[under construction: writing in progress]

Assiniboia and Canada 1869

Assiniboia and Canada 1869, separated by approximately 300 kilomtres/ 500 miles through the Canadian Shield.

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The “Canadian Party” (a.k.a. Friends of Canada/ Canada Party/ the Canadas), at Red River Settlement during 1869-1870, was an arm of the “Canada First” organization,[1] which in turn was part of a “Canadian Expansionist movement” that was centred in Ontario.[2]

Canadian Expansionists wanted to annex HBC territory, amounting to about one third of the North American land mass. They did not anticipate having to politically confederate with the people inhabiting that territory. Rather, they thought they would achieve their goal through invasion legitimated by a purchase agreement negotiated between Canada, the Crown, and the Hudson’s Bay Company [HBC] (the negotiations culminating in the Rupert’s Land Act, 1868).[3]

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Definitions

Movement: “To an historian of ideas, a movement is a group of like-minded formulators or popularizers, and an idea is a perception which starts the movement and determines its evolution.”[4]

Annexation: To annex something is to “1. append or attach, especially to a larger or more significant thing; 2. incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country”; Add (territory) to one’s own territory by appropriation”; to take possession of an area of land or a country, usually by force or without permission.”[5]

Annexation is “the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation.”[6]

Confederation: is a union of political organizations”; “A confederation, also known as confederacy or league, is a union of political units for common action in relation to other units”; “When a group of people or nations form an alliance, it is called a confederation, allowing each member to govern itself but agreeing to work together for common causes.”[7]

Invasion: “is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, … altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government, or a combination thereof. … The term invasion usually denotes a strategic endeavor of substantial magnitude; because the goals of an invasion are usually large-scale and long-term, a sizeable force is needed to hold territory, and protect the interests of the invading entity. … The term does not imply the presence or lack of justification for the action, and the morality or immorality of a military operation does not determine whether it is so termed.”[8]

 

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The core idea that galvanized the Canadian Expansionist movement was that there was money to be made out of land:[9]

  • at the level of the individual:

• in acquiring enough fertile land to run a profitable farm (good farmland had become difficult to obtain in Ontario),[10] and

• in speculation (buying up land cheap and selling at a higher price);[11]

  • at the level of the government:

• in selling to developers (such as railway companies and mining companies),[12] and

• in obtaining loans in international money markets, by borrowing against projected profits made through potential development (Canada, for example, borrowed the £300,000 to purchase Rupert’s Land from the HBC).[13]

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The Canadian Party Members

At Red River, members of the Canadian Party were regarded as “designing and ambitious men … unprincipled scoundrels … imposters,” and “carpet-baggers,” who acted as agents of “anarchy and confusion.”[14]

Initially, at best there was “a handful of the colony’s [Canadian] settlers” who “loudly demanded annexation of the Red River colony to Canada” through the press—locally in the Nor’-Wester, and as news correspondents for Canadian newspapers.[15]

The group grew in size when Canadians from Ontario began arriving in the summer of 1868 and the spring of 1869, ostensibly as settlers and as members of work crews. They were predominantly young, single men. They proved more than simply annoying when they began ‘making treaties’ (trading liquor for land), staking off claims, and trespassing on farms without any regard for the settlement’s laws or customary procedures.[16]

Beginning in the autumn of 1869, with the expectation that William McDougall would soon arrive (to take over the governance of Rupert’s Land as Lieutenant-Governor), transporting 350 rifles with his baggage,[17] the Canadians began to organize for military action.

Throughout the Resistance of 1869–1870, together with expansionists in Ontario, the Canadian Party worked to prevent any confederation agreement between Canada and the settlers of Assininiboia (who were overwhelmingly Métis).

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Initial Agent Provocateurs:

schultz

John Christian Schultz

  • ‘Dr’ John Christian Schultz: Land speculator; importer and retailer of pharmaceuticals; a medical quack at best and fraud at worst. Visited the settlement in 1860; took up residence in the Town of Winnipeg 1861; bought into the Nor’-Wester 1864; full owner 1865; transferred ownership to Walter Robert Bown (immediately below), 1868. Unsuccessfully petitioned for an appointment to the HBC Council of Assiniboia, 1867. Arrested and jailed 17 January 1868 for non-payment of debts; escaped 18 January 1868 and remained at large, unmolested by the Governor and Council of Assiniboia. Characterized as ruthless and unscrupulous, Schultz was credited with naming the Canadian Party, which was “succinctly defined in 1869 as being ‘those who favor annexation [not confederation] to Canada’.” He was “in direct communication with the Government at Ottawa.” Arrested at surrender of ‘Fort Schultz’ (his drugstore) and made a prisoner in the first attack on Upper Fort Garry, 7 December. Escaped 23 January 1870 and organized the second attack from Kildonan Parish (14–16 February 1870), then fled the settlement, Riel having refused to grant amnesty, and with the death of Hugh John Sutherland (on whom Schultz had attempted surgery) and the assault on Norbert Parisien (which proved fatal)—both related incidents occurring during the second attack.[18]

bown

Walter Robert Bown

  • Walter Robert Bown: arrived at Winnipeg in 1864, after which he appeared to be “almost entirely the creature of Schultz.”[19] Editor then owner of the Nor’-Wester 1868–1869. Convicted of ‘defamation of character’ and jailed for non-payment of the fine, 1868. Went into hiding north of the Settlement in  November 1869.
  • Roland Price Meade: apparently first arrived in the North-West from Canada as an HBC employee in 1866; married and lived at Winnipeg 1866 (perhaps working with James Farquharson [below] as a house painter); secretary pro tem of the Red River Famine Relief committee in 1868–1869 (which came under criticism for not distributing monies allegedly received from Ontario); co-editor of the Nor’-Wester with Bown, 1869; made a prisoner, shortly after 7 December ‘Fort Schultz’ mass arrest.[20]

Dr. Lynch

Dr. James Spencer Lynch

  • Dr. James Spencer Lynch: perhaps graduated from a medical college at Toronto in 1864; arrived at Winnipeg, 1868; was known as a “fervent Canadian annexationist,” with a deep antipathy to the Catholic Church; made a prisoner, 7 December at ‘Fort Schultz’; released 15 February 1870 after giving oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government; described as “afterwards [1869] ‘Captain Lynch’ of the Dennis Brigade,” he was paymaster of the Canadian Volunteer Militia at Red River.[22]

charles mair

Charles Mair

  • Charles Mair: a “conventional colonial” poet; co-founder (with George Taylor Denison, William Alexander Foster, and Robert Grant Haliburton) of the ‘Canada First’ organization in 1868; arrived at Winnipeg 27 October 1868 as correspondent for George Brown‘s Toronto Globe, and as paymaster for the Canadian road building project (which the HBC objected to as a surprise invasion of its territory), supervised by John Allan Snow (described directly below); land speculator. At Red River he was regarded as a self-important Upper Canadian fop, who jotted down “his sneering observations about the west” for publication in the Ontario Press; apparently made a prisoner, but when is not clear; fled the settlement after the second attack on Upper Fort Garry.[23]
  • John Allan Snow: arrived 27 October 1868 with Mair (in charge of some “18 tons of provisions”—a good portion of which was pork and beans—most of which were apparently left at HBC Post Georgetown, U.S., and the rest warehoused in Schultz’s newly built brick building); regarded as “representative of that vanguard of Canadians who provoked resistance”; land speculator; fined for trading liquor for land.[24]

rev. geo. young

Rev. George Young

  • Rev. George Young: Methodist, Wesleyan; formerly a volunteer in a squadron of dragoons to combat the fight for representative government known as the ‘Mackenzie Rebellion‘ (1837-1838), in Upper Canada; c. 1867, he asked for and received a mission at Red River; arrived at Winnipeg 3 July 1868; set up ministries at, and made the rounds among, settlements at Sturgeon Creek, Headingly, Poplar Point, and High Bluff, where his first contacts and congregants were Canadian (and where additional Canadians would soon encamp).[25]

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Reinforcements:

John Harriosn O'Donnell

Dr. John Harrison O’Donnell

  • Dr. John Harrison O’Donnell: formerly Surgeon of the 6th Hochelago Light Infantry (to 1866); arrived 3 November 1869 ostensibly to join ‘Dr.’ Schultz in a medical practice (though Schultz was not a licensed practitioner and it is not clear whether O’Donnell graduated from a medical college before 1881); took up residence, with his wife and children, in Schultz’s brick building; made a prisoner, 7 December 1869 at ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender; afterwards (1870) took over the duties of paymaster of the Canadian Volunteer Militia from Lynch.[26]
  • ‘Captain’/ ‘Major’ Adam Clark Webb/ Webbe: qualified as Lieutenant-Colonel, 40th Battalion, Royal Military College; organized the 40th and 41st Battalions, Northumberland County; afterwards obtained degrees in Toronto and Ottawa as Provincial and Dominion Land Surveyor. Arrived at Red River c. 12 August 1869; Touched off the Resistance by trespassing on the hay privilege of Anastasie Landry and André Nault‘s farm; “formed two companies of volunteers” at Portage, one under his command, the other under Charles Arkoll Boulton (below); named as one of the “the principal figures” in the Kildonan offensive of February 1870.[27]

Wallace

James Wallace

  • ‘Major’ James Wallace: newspaper editor, Whitby Ontario, who organized and financed the Whitby Highland Rifle Company (1856) and took part in the defence of Canada, Fenian Raids (1866). He was working for Snow by 1 September 1869, when he was sent to the U.S. to obtain pork and beans (which he delivered to Schultz). Wallace was working as spy for McDougall, by 4 November 1869, when he was sent to Upper Fort Garry; gathered intel during the first days of the Convention of Twenty-four; “the plan taken by the Major to win the confidence of his interlocutors was free indulgence in coarse and unseemly abuse of the gentleman in whose interest he had come … by the more intelligent of his hearers the ‘Major’s’ deportment caused him to be regarded as a schemer, or a man lacking discretion to a dangerous degree”; returned to Pembina 22 November; rumoured (falsely) to have been taken prisoner 7 December 1869 at ‘Fort Schultz’; presumably returned to ON with McDougall 18 December.[28]

Boulton

Charles Arkoll Boulton (as a Lieutenant Colonel, 1885)

  • ‘Major’/ ‘Captain’ Charles Arkoll Boulton: “born into a family with strong connections to the military and political élite of Upper Canada”; military career; major in the 46th (East Durham) Battalion of Militia, Ontario;c. 3 September 1869, joined the survey party of John Stoughton Dennis (below), as “Chainman” on Milner Hart’s crew at Portage; subsequently criticized for “weak and inconclusive leadership.”[29]

Dennis Sr.

John Stoughton Dennis

  • ‘Colonel’ John Stoughton Dennis: joined the Ontario militia c. 1855; saw active service in the Fenian invasion, 1866, disgraced himself and was described as a “coward” and “Poltrooney scoundrel.” Sent to Red River “to survey lots for prospective settlers” in 1869; stayed with Schultz on arrival in August; stated that “all the personnel under his command – ‘without a single exception’ – had military training as well as skills in surveying”; occupied Lower Fort Garry; fled settlement 7 December; returned to Ontario with McDougall 18 December. [30]

Gammie Laurie

P.G. Laurie

  • Patrick Gammie Laurie: acquaintance of Schultz by 1859; lost race to establish first newspaper at Red River that year; arrived 1869, as newspaper correspondent and working for Bown on the Nor’-Wester; although reputedly expelled from the settlement in November 1869, was still present in December; returned to Ontario and claimed losses; returned to Manitoba in September 1870 and worked for Schultz’s newspapers.[31]

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The off-site Canadian Lieutenant-Governor Designate and Entourage:

William MacDougall

William McDougall

  • William McDougall: Methodist, Wesleyan; former journalist for the Globe; anti Catholic and “a well-known francophobe”; regarded Aboriginal peoples as impediments to ‘progress.’ As minister of public works, he proposed the annexation of Rupert’s Land (which he identified as “the grand object for which our government was formed in 1864”), on 4 December 1867 in the House of Commons, Ottawa. In 1868 he went with George-Étienne Cartier to England to negotiate the transfer of the HBC territory to Canada, effective 1 December 1869. Initiated Snow’s road building project. Appointed 28 Sept. 1869 as lieutenant governor designate of the North-West Territories; he professed “no possibility of granting political power to the new territories until ‘we get a settled Canadian population to work upon.'” Linked to Dennis (a former schoolmate); and to Mair (whom he met on arrival), and thereby the Canada First organization. Arrived at HBC Pembina Post, 30 October 1869; instructed to remove to U.S. territory 1 November 1869 (which he did the next morning). Apparently unaware that Canada had decided to postpone the transfer, McDougall faslely and illegally proclaimed the annexation of Rupert’s Land  to Canada on 1 December 1869 and his ascent to governing authority; sent “The North-West Territories. Proclamation” to supporters in the settlement, and, in a separate document, commissioned Dennis to raise an armed force to “attack, arrest, disarm or disperse the said armed men so unlawfully assembled,” with the help of Boulton. After the failure of the Canadian militia to take Upper Fort Garry, and informed of Canada’s decision to delay the transfer, McDougall gave up the crusade, departing for Ontario 18 December 1869. He was roundly criticized; described as having a “deep eccentricity as a politician [that] lay in a romantic vision dampened by aloofness and cynicism, in ambition deadened by a reluctance either to lead or to follow” [i.e. exhibited narcissism].[32]

Cameron

Donald Roderick Cameron

  • Captain’ Donald Roderick Cameron: formerly captain of the Royal Artillery (created when the British East India Company‘s army was reduced), 1856; fought in Bhutan Campaign, India (war between Britain and India, 1864-1865, in which Bhutan was forced to cede territory). Son-in-law of Charles Tupper (‘ex-officio’/ temporarily-not-elected member of the Canadian parliament); slated to be the McDougall government’s chief of police; unsuccessful at entering Assiniboia through the Métis barrier/ la barrière, St. Norbert; departed with McDougall 18 December 1869.[33]

Provencher

J.A.N. Provencher

  • Joseph-Alfred-Norbert Provencher: nephew of Joseph-Norbert Provencher, the former bishop of St. Boniface; articled at the law office of William McDougall; journalist (Montreal); editor of La Minerve (Montreal); appointed secretary to McDougall 1869; arrived at the Métis barrier/ la barrière, St. Norbert, Red River Settlement, 30 October 1869; escorted back to Pembina the next day; apparently remained at Pembina after McDougall departed for Canada 18 December.[34]

A.N. Richards

A.N. Richards

  • Albert Norton Richards: Upper Canadian lawyer and politician; “took a keen interest in politics, and was identified with the Reform Party”; Solicitor-General, Canada West, and appointed Queen’s Counsel, 1863-1864; slated to be the McDougall government’s attorney general.[35]

the other alex begg

Alexander Begg

  • Alexander Begg: (not to be mistaken for the other Alexander Begg at Red River); former newspaper proprietor; customs officer; slated to be the McDougall government’s collector of customs.[36]
  • Dr. Albert Gideon Jackes: Professional details unknown.[37]

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Volunteer Militiamen recently arrived from Canada:[38]

  1. ‘Ensign’ William John Allen: road crew Oak Point; taken prisoner 7 December 1869 at surrender of ‘Fort Schultz’; escaped 9 January 1870; recaptured 10 January 1870; released 15 February 1870; returned to ON.
  2. Lewis W. Archibald: arrived 1869; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 68 days imprisonment); returned to NS.
  3. James Henry Ashdown: arrived 1868, tinsmith at St. John’s; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869;  released 15 February 1870? (claimed 70 days imprisonment); remained in MB.
  4. Hildander Bartlett: ‘farmer’ at Portage with adult sons; remained in MB.
  5. Orange Bartlett: ‘farmer’ at Portage with father and brother; remained in MB.
  6. Wilder Bartlett: ‘farmer’ at Portage with father and brother; capture rumoured in December 1869; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among release of 15 March (claimed 29 days imprisonment); remained in MB.[39]
  7. Thomas Baxter: ‘farmer’ temporarily at Headingly; rumoured to be prisoner December 1869; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; remained in MB (St. Paul’s).[40]
  8. William G. Bird: ‘farmer’ Portage; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 33 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  9. George Brandon: prisoner, some time after ‘Fort Schultz surrender; released 4 January? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  10. Magnus Brown: temporarily at Headingly; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 28 days imprisonment); remained in MB (St. John’s).
  11. George A. Bubar: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 70 days imprisonment); remained in MB (St. Francois Xavier).
  12. Donald Cameron: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days); returned to ON? (farmer at Headingly by 1909?)
  13. Duncan U. Campbell: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; claimed release on 12 February 1870 (claimed 65 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  14. Angus R. Chisholm: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 12 February 1870? (captive 68 days); claimed imprisonment; remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  15. ‘Aide de Camp’ Donald Codd: arrived 1869, road crew Oak Point; afterwards ‘surveyor’ with Dennis; fled with Dennis, mid-December; returned to ON.[41]
  16. Joseph M. Coombs: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days); returned to ON; returned to MB with RREF.
  17. ‘Captain’ Copland Coulard/ Cowlard/ Cowland: “an English volunteer officer” put in charge of enrolment at the south end of St. Paul’s Parish; claimed losses; farmer at Raeburn MB by 1909.
  18. Matthew ‘Matt’ Davis: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 67 days imprisonment); remained in MB (St. John’s).
  19. William J. Davis: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 12 January 1870? (claimed 36 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  20. James Dawson: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 67 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  21. Robert Denison/ Dennison: ‘farmer’ Headingly; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Headingly).
  22. James Devlin: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869? released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  23. William Dewer/ Dewar/ Dwire Sr.: placed in charge of the force occupying Lower Fort Garry by Dennis; claimed losses; returned to ON.
  24. William Dewer/ Dewar Jr.: claimed 10 days imprisonment; returned to ON.
  25. John Dillworth: claimed losses; returned to ON.
  26. John Dillworth Jr.: ‘farmer’ High Bluff; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among final release of 15 April 1870? (but claimed 4 mos. imprisonment); returned to ON.
  27. William Dillworth: ‘farmer’ High Bluff; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among release of 15 March? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  28. William S. Durie: military school cadet; arrived c. 3 September as “Flagman” on Hart’s survey crew Portage; drill instructor; claimed losses; returned to ON.
  29. William Dow: military school cadet; arrived 3 September as “Flagman” on Hart’s survey crew Portage; unknown ID [perhaps Dewer?].
  30. George Ellwood: ‘carpenter‘ Winnipeg; unknown ID.
  31. William A. Farmer: cadet at military school ON; ‘farmer’ Portage; arrived 4 October 1869 as “Chainman” on Webb’s survey crew; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among release of 15 March? (claimed 30 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  32. John Ferguson: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment); remained in MB (High Bluff).
  33. George Francis Fortney: American-born Canadian; road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 71 days imprisonment); remained in MB (St. Charles).
  34. Allen Wilson Graham: staked 1600 acre claim, Rat Creek, High Bluff; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days); returned to ON.
  35. John V. Graham: arrived May 1869, Rat Creek, High Bluff?; returned to ON?
  36. Samuel Graham: unknown ID.
  37. William Graham: staked 1600 acre claim, Rat Creek, High Bluff; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 10 February 1870? (claimed 65 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  38. D.A. Grant: “bookkeeper for Col. Dennis“; reported pork and beans outrage to McDougall; otherwise unknown ID.
  39. John Haines: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 9 January 1870? (claimed 34 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  40. George Andrew Hall/ Hill: prisoner, December 1869? released 9 January 1870? (claimed 34 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Portage).
  41. Arthur H. Hamilton: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, December 1869? released 6 January? returned to ON?[42]
  42. Colin M. Hamilton: military school cadet; arrived c. 4 October 1869 as “Flagman” on Webb’s survey crew; stayed with Alexander Begg and Katherine Jane Glen Macaulay Rae Hamilton Begg (St. John’s)?; claimed losses; returned to ON.
  43. James/ John B. Harris: road crew Oak Point; rumoured to be prisoner December 1869; returned to ON and joined RREF?
  44. Milner/ Wilner Hart: arrived c. July 1869 as assistant to Dennis and head of a survey party at Shoal Lake/  Portage; returned to ON.
  45. Charles Heath: prisoner, December 1869; remained in MB (Winnipeg).[43]
  46. Robert Holland: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, December 1869; released 4 January; took oath of allegiance to Provisional Government 6 January 1870; remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  47. Charles House: unknown ID/ activity; claimed 31 days imprisonment.
  48. Joshua M. House: unknown ID/ activity; claimed losses.
  49. Walter/ Walton F. Hyman/ Hymon: worked in a tannery at St. Norbert; ‘spy’ for Schultz; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 9 January 1870; recaptured next day? released 15 January? (claimed 42 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  50. John Ivy: St. James; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 9 January 1870 (captive 34 days); prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870 (claimed 35 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  51. James Jeffrey: prisoner, December 1869? gave oath of allegiance to Provisional Government and released 4 January 1870 (claimed 34 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  52. James Jack/ Jock: ‘farmer’ High Bluff; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); remained in MB (High Bluff).
  53. James C. Kent/ Grant?: unknown ID; prisoner, December 1869?
  54. William Kitson: ‘farmer’ Headingly; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869?; escaped 9 January 1870 (claimed 37 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Headingly and Rat Creek, High Bluff).
  55. Thomas Langman: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 12 January 1870? (captive 37 days); returned to ON?
  56. John Latimer: prisoner, some time after ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender, December 1869; released 4 January 1870 (captive less than 30 days); returned to ON.
  57. Thomas Lusted: reputed to be a prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869, but claimed he was able to sneak away; by 17 December returned to ON; claimed losses; returned to MB for retribution.
  58. Alexander McArthur: ‘merchant’ arrived October 1869; not recorded as captive, but claimed 100 days imprisonment; remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  59. Peter McArthur: arrived 1869, road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 10 January 1870; shortly recaptured; released 20 February 1870? (claimed 75 days imprisonment); returned to ON? returned to MB.
  60. James McBain: ‘farmer’ Portage: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 28 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  61. Robert McBain: ‘farmer’ Portage; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  62. Archibald MacDonald: ‘farmer’ High Bluff; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  63. Charles McDonald: ‘farmer’ Portage: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 32 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  64. Hugh McDonald: arrived May 1869; otherwise unknown ID/ activity.
  65. John McKay: ‘farmer’ Headingly: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 29 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Headingly).
  66. Leonard McKay: unknown ID/ activity; claimed losses.
  67. John McLeod: prisoner, December 1869; gave oath of allegiance to Provisional Government 4 January 1870; released; returned to ON?
  68. Murdoch McLeod: ‘farmer’ High Bluff; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 35 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  69. Alexander McPherson: ‘farmer’ Portage: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 32 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  70. George Duncan McVicar: arrived 1869; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 6-9 January 1870 (claimed 30 days imprisonment); returned to ON with Schultz; returned to Winnipeg, MB ‘late 1870.’
  71. Francis J. Manan: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869? otherwise unknown ID.
  72. Alex Marple: arrived May 1869; otherwise unknown ID; rumoured to be prisoner December 1869.
  73. F.C. Mercer: prisoner, some time after ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; gave oath of allegiance to Provisional Government 4 January 1870 and was released (captive 29 days); claimed imprisonment; remained in MB (St. Paul’s).
  74. ‘Lieutenant’ Charles/ George Miller: ‘farmer’; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 9 January 1870; recaptured 10 January; released 15 February 1870 after giving oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government (claimed 66 days imprisonment); remained in MB (St. Charles).
  75. John Mooney: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 70 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Portage).
  76. Alexander Montgomery Muckle: Dennis’ survey crew; military school cadet; assisted Dennis “in drilling and organizing several companies of volunteers”; in charge of enrolment at St. Andrews and the north end of St. Paul’s/ Middlechurch; left for ON 18 Dec. 1869 with Dennis and McDougall; returned with the RREF, 1st or Ontario Battalion of Militia under Lieutenant Colonel Jarvis.
  77. Francis Mugridge: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 January 1870? (captive 40 days); claimed imprisonment.
  78. Stewart J.D. Mulkins: military school cadet; nephew of Dennis; arrived c. 3 September 1869 as “Chainman” on Hart’s survey crew Portage; afterwards employee in Dennis’ ‘office’ at Lower Fort Garry; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 5 January 1870; returned to ON; claimed imprisonment.
  79. Alexander ‘Alex’ Murray: ‘farmer’ Portage; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment); prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 30 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Portage).
  80. George Newcombe: cadet at military school ON; ‘farmer’ Poplar Point; arrived c. 4 October 1869 as “Chainman” on Webb’s survey crew Portage; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Poplar Point).
  81. George Nichols/ Nicholson: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  82. William Nimmons: arrived 1868, left, returned 1869; member of Snow’s road crew; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 2 January 1870 (captive 27 days); claimed imprisonment; returned to or remained in North-West.
  83. R. Phillip Otwell: prisoner, December 1869; released 4 January; took oath of allegiance to Provisional Government 6 January; returned to Ontario.
  84. Charles E. Palmer: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days); returned to ON.
  85. Alexander Parker: ‘farmer’ Headingly; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 33 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  86. George Parker: road crew Oak Point; ‘farmer’ Rivière Sale; prisoner, some time after ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender, December 1869; escaped 9 January 1870 (captive about 30 days); prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among March 15 release? (claimed 60 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  87. James Robb: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, December 1869; escaped 1 January 1870; returned to ON.
  88. Lindsay Russell: chief engineer for the road project Oak Point; issued proclamation at Winnipeg “calling on all loyal citizens to protect the government property (the pork and beans in Schultz’s store),” 6 December 1869;
  89. W. Salter: ‘farmer’ Headingly; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; returned to ON?
  90. William Eli Sanford: ‘of Hamilton,’ business associate of Alexander Begg; arrived with Joseph Howe; remained after Howe’s departure 18 October; in communication with Dennis; met McDougall on 29 October 1869, 30 miles south of Pembina, handed off 4 despatches, and informed about the barricade.
  91. Thomas Scott: road crew Oak Point; ‘farmer’ High Bluff; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 9 January 1870 (captive 34 days); prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; executed 4 March.
  92. Horace R. Sewell: unknown ID/ activities.
  93. Daniel Sissons: ‘farmer’ Portage: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 28 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Portage).
  94. Joseph Smith: ‘farmer’ Headingly: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 28 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  95. Lawrence Smith: ‘farmer’ Portage: prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 28 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Portage).
  96. Robert Smith: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870 after giving oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government (claimed 71 days imprisonment); returned to ON?
  97. Richard Sparling: arrived May 1869; unknown ID/ activities.
  98. William Spice: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 6 January 1870? (claimed 31 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  99. James Stewart: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 66 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  100. Joseph H. Stokes: road crew Oak Point; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  101. John Switzer: ‘farmer’ Portage; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 26 days imprisonment); returned to ON.
  102. [James?] Turner: ‘of Hamilton,’ [treasurer of donations for Mair’s ‘famine relief’ project]; arrived with Joseph Howe; remained after Howe’s departure 18 October; in communication and cooperating with Dennis.
  103. Peter Walker: High Bluff; claimed losses; remained in MB (High Bluff).
  104. William F. Walsh: road crew Oak Point; returned to ON.
  105. H. Williams: ‘farmer’ Portage; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? returned to ON?
  106. Henry Woodington: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; escaped 9 January 1870 (captive 34 days); prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 65 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  107. Archibald Francis Wright: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 12 February 1870? (claimed 65 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Winnipeg).
  108. Hugh Wrightman: prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869? released  12 February? or after 15 February 1870? (claimed 77 days imprisonment); remained in MB (St. John’s).
  109. George Wylds: ‘farmer’ Poplar Point; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870;  released 15 February? (claimed 29 days imprisonment); remained in MB (Poplar Point).
  110. George H. Young Jr.: son of Rev. George Young [above].

 

Alleged Red River Recruits:

Several lists of purported supporters recruited from among Red River people exist. Some of the lists are more credible than others in that there are corroborating accounts—of arrests for example (the lists seldom corroborate each other). Most lists, however, are second-hand accounts at best, not having been composed during the Resistance, and put together by authors who remained anonymous. Historian Frederick J. Shore has observed that “278 Canadians and their supporters … were directly involved in actions against the Métis during the time that the Provisional Government was in power.” Shore also calculated that there were 34 ‘French’ Métis and 68 ‘English’ Métis who supported the Canadian Party (for a total of 102).[44] The compiled list below, however, shows more Métis supporters of ‘the Canadas’ were alleged than that—something over 150 (that imprecise number reflecting imprecise attributions of identity).[45] It seems individuals local to Red River Settlement (of whatever cultures of origin) participated to varying degrees, however, and that at various times they changed allegiances.

One list, too problematic to be regarded as reliable, is held by the Archives of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453). It purports to include “The names of those men from St. Andrew’s Parish, who mustered to rescue those imprisoned in Fort Garry by Louis Riel during the winter of 1869-70.”[46] However, there is no solid corroborating evidence to show these 118 men were sympathetic to the Canadian Party during the ‘pork and bean’ incident in 1869; there was no attempt to rescue prisoners until after that incident, which attempt took place in February 1870. [According to the New Nation (25 February 1870), the 24 prisoners who remained in the gaol to 15 February were those who had refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government of Assiniboia and refrain from taking up arms against the government. On 15 February they finally agreed to the terms of the oath and were freed.] Additionally, the list includes men who are not known to have been at Red River Settlement at the time. The list was obviously fabricated after the fact, quite long after the fact, given that some of the people identified as “deceased” had not died until the 1890s (or perhaps later). As well, some men are listed as being of locations that do not correspond to parish divisions before the creation of Manitoba in the summer of 1870. The list was obviously composed by someone unsympathetic to the cause of the original Métis settlers and their elected government; and someone unwilling to acknowledge the loss of support from settlers of the entire Lower Settlement—including those from St. Andrew’s—after the shooting of Hugh John Sutherland and the mauling inflicted on Norbert Parisien by members of the Canadian Militia during the February incident.

Those named in various lists are arranged alphabetically by surname below with ID numbers taken from D.N. Sprague and R.P. Frye, The genealogy of the first Metis nation: the development and dispersal of the Red River Settlement, 1820-1900 (Winnipeg: Peguis, 1983) and linked to their parish of residence according to the Archibald census of 1870 as laid out in the pages of this site.

  1. Robert Adams (Métis): St. Margaret’s/ High Bluff#26; taken prisoner 16 February 1870, after Kildonan fatal attacks; released 15 March? (claimed 33 days imprisonment).
  2. James Anderson (Métis): St. Andrew’s #78; listed as farmer, of Lower Fort Garry  (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  3. Thomas Anderson (Métis): St. Andrew’s #93; listed as son of James Anderson above, and as of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  4. John Arnal: unknown ID; listed as of St. Andrew’s, farmer, but not found in records of 1870 residents (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  5. Adolphus ‘Dolphis’ Ballendine (Métis): St. Andrew’s #167; son of #1140 James Ballendine, living with his family on his own property, next to his widowed mother and brothers John, George, and Robert, but listed as laborer, of Winnipeg (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  6. Charles Ballendine/ Ballenden (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #177 William Ballenden; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  7. George Ballendine Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #1140 James Ballendine, living with his widowed mother and brothers John and Robert; listed as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  8. George Ballendine Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #168; but listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  9. John Ballendine (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #1140 James Ballendine, living with his widowed mother and brothers George and Robert; but listed as laborer, of Winnipeg (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  10. Robert Ballendine (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #1140 James Ballendine, living with his widowed mother and brothers John and George; listed as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  11. Dr. Henry Septimus Beddome (Englander): St. Andrew’s #264; listed as a deceased but did not die until 1881 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  12. John James Bird (Métis): St. Andrew’s #385; listed as of Lower Fort Garry, farmer, and Member elect of Kildonan, but did not hold the latter position until 1892–1895 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  13. Thomas Bird: uncertain ID; listed as deceased, although the seemingly most likely candidate (St. Paul’s/ Middlechurch #395), did not die until 1900 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  14. William Birston (Métis): St. Andrew’s #529; listed as deceased, but did not die until 1876/ 1888 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  15. James Brown (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #540 John Brown; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  16. Thomas Brown (Métis): St. Andrew’s #539, living with his family on his own property next to his father #540 John Brown and younger brother Thomas; but listed as laborer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  17. Dennis Caplitbo/ Caplette: unknown ID; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  18. Baptiste Charette (Métis): Pointe Coupée or St. Norbert #746; claimed 15 days imprisonment; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  19. Daniel Charette (Métis): Pointe Coupée #745; Listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  20. Francois Charette (Métis): Pointe Coupée, living with father #747 Joseph Charette; claimed 15 days imprisonment.
  21. Joseph Charette (Métis): Pointe Coupée, probably #747 (father of Francois Charette above) but see also ##744/ #3653 (brother of Francois Charette above); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  22. Matthew Cook (Métis): St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point #937; claimed 20 days imprisonment.
  23. James Corrigal (Métis): St. Andrew’s #851?; but listed as farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  24. James Corrigal Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #961 James Corrigal Sr.; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  25. James Corrigal Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #961; listed as deceased, but did not die until 1887 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  26. John Corrigal (Métis): St. Andrew’s #962 [but see also #959]; listed as farmer, son of #961 James Corrigal Sr. (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  27. John C. Corrigal: unknown ID; listed as a Mason, deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  28. Thomas Corrigal (Métis): St. Andrew’s, 17 years old, living with father #961 James Corrigal Sr.; and listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  29. William Corrigal (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #961 James Corrigal Sr.; but listed as son of John C. Corrigal, and as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  30. George Cox (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #976 John Cox Sr., living with father (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  31. John Cox (Scottish or Métis): St. Andrew’s; probably John Jr., living with father #976 John Cox Sr. (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  32. James Cromartie (Métis): St. Andrew’s #980; but listed as a farmer at Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  33. Cuthbert Cummings (Métis): St. Andrew’s #986; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  34. Charles Curtis (Usonian): St. Mary’s/ Portage #874; mention as anti-provisional government?
  35. William Dease Jr. (Métis): Pointe Coupée #892; claimed losses; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  36. William Dease Sr. (Métis): Pointe Coupée#1059; Councillor of Assiniboia [HBC government]; paid (as though on salary) by Canadian surveyor ‘Col.’ John Stoughton Dennis for supplying 5 men and 6 horses “including carts” for ‘Capt.’/ ‘Major’ Adam Clark Webb/ Webbe’s survey crew; on 27 October 1869 Dease, with some 80 men in his company, tried to “procure … peaceable dispersion” at the barricade/ la barrière, but instead about twenty of his men defected to the ‘Patriotes‘ of the Comité National; pledged neutrality November 1869; charged with theft, HBC stores, St. Boniface; allied with Riel by 4 March 1870; claimed 4 days imprisonment; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).[47]
  37. Charles Donald (Métis): St. Clement’s #1300; a supporter of William Dease Sr., Donald was tasked (28 October 1869) with recruiting men from the lower settlement to support Dease’s “peace party” (see Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Upper Fort Garry. 1869.)
  38. John Donald (Métis): St. Peter’s #1301? (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  39. Joseph Donald (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1184? listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  40. William Donald Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1303; son of #1305 William Donald Sr., listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  41. William Donald Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1305; listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  42. Mary Isabella/ Mary Jane Drever (Non-Aboriginal): Winnipeg, living with father #1311 William Drever Sr.; covert operative.
  43. William Drever Jr. (Non-Aboriginal): Winnipeg #1312; left for ON with Schultz after February incident.
  44. Alexandre Ducharme (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1335; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  45. John Eccles: uncertain ID; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 20 January 1870? (claimed 44 days imprisonment).
  46. Archibald Flett (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1607; listed as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  47. James Flett Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1866, son of #1604; listed as farmer, brother of John Flett Sr. (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  48. John Flett Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1605, son of #1604; listed as deceased, brother of James Flett Sr. (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  49. John Flett (Non-Aboriginal): St. John’s? and Winnipeg (staying with sister Jane Flett-Linklater) son of #1596 John Flett and Isabelle Murray of Kildonan [mentioned in Canada, Parliament, House of Commons Debates, 1st Parliament, 4th Session, vol 1 (1871), 389 (12 April)].
  50. George Folster (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #1494 John Folster, living with father; listed as deceased brother of John and William Folster, but as son of William Folster (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  51. John Folster Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #1494 John Folster, but living on own property; listed as deceased brother of George and William Folster, but as son of William Folster (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  52. William Folster (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #1494 John Folster, living with father; listed as deceased brother of George and John Folster, but as son of William Folster (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  53. William Gomez Fonseca (Spanish Danish West Indian): St. John’s #1528; rumoured to be prisoner, December 1869, some time after ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender.
  54. Charles Fox: unknown ID: listed as brother of William Fox (immediately below), but not recorded as a resident of the settlement in 1870 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  55. William Fox (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with widowed mother, son of #1646 Charles Fox who died 1868; listed as brother of Charles Fox (immediately above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  56. Thomas Franklin: St. James #1663; Chelsea Pensioner?; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 12 February 1870? (claimed 66 days imprisonment).
  57. William Gaddy (Métis): St. Mary’s/ Portage #1886; rumoured to be prisoner/ executed/ banished [see Prisoners]; claimed 9 days imprisonment.
  58. Charles Garrett (Canadian): Headingly (or Sturgeon Creek?) arrived c. 1860; liquor distiller, operator of Garrett House, a saloon/ boarding house at Town of Winnipeg; described by Alexander Begg, Ten Years in Early Winnipeg (1879), 13, as “hotel-keeper, lawyer, doctor, stump orator and goodness knows what else” who “made himself notorious”; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870; claimed 66 days imprisonment.
  59. Andre Genthon (Métis): unknown ID; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  60. Charles Genthon (Métis): St. Boniface #1928; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  61. Elie Genthon (Métis): St. Norbert #1929; Listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  62. Joseph Genthon (Métis): St. Boniface #1927; appears to have been on good terms with troops of the Provisional Government (playing cards with them at Upper Fort Garry); but listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  63. Francis/ Francois Gibson (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with widowed mother #1954/ #1956 Angelique Chalifoux-Gibson (husband died 1869); listed as farmer of Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  64. Francois Gosselin/ Goalim (Métis): Point Coupée; Listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  65. Baptiste Goulait: unknown ID; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  66. Roger Norbert Alexis Goulét/ Goulait (Métis): St. Boniface, living with father #2012 Alexis Goulet; appointed by the Convention of Forty as Collector of Customs of the Provisional Government (see Definition Provisional Government this site); but Listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  67. John Francis ‘Johnny’ Grant (Métis): St. Charles #2032; prisoner, arrested for anti-government activity, March 1870; Listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  68. Samuel Grey: unknown ID, not found among inhabitants of Red River in 1870, but two of the name were in Rupert’s Land elsewhere (one of whom died 1887 at Churchill, the other died in 1922); listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  69. Alexander Gunn (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of #2064 Donald Gunn (below), brother of Hon. George Gunn of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia; listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  70. Donald Gunn (Scottish): St. Andrew’s #2064; in 1869 both Donald Gunn and his son George Gunn were members of the Council of Twenty-four held in the Court House, adjoining Fort Garry, on 16 November. The elder Gunn participated as elected representative for St. Andrew’s, the younger for St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point. George Gunn served in the same capacity at the Convention of Forty and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia. In December of 1869, although Donald Gunn, agreed to organize men in his parish, he declined to support the march on Winnipeg, because none of the people in his parish supported “a resort to arms.” Listed as “Hon.” (which was his title as of 1871) and deceased, but did not die until 1878 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453). [See 6 December, “Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Upper Fort Garry. 1869,” this site.]
  71. James Gunn (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2062, son of #2064 Donald Gunn (above), brother of Hon. George Gunn of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia; listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  72. John Gunn (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2063, son of #2064 Donald Gunn (above), brother of Hon. George Gunn of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia; listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry and “ex M.P.P.” but was  MLA (1875-1878), and MLA (1878-79) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  73. John Hallet (Métis): St. James #2102; prisoner, December 1869? claimed 17 days imprisonment.
  74. William Hallett (Métis): St. James #2101 (or St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point #2117?); prisoner, November and December 1869? released 15 February 1870; claimed 73 days imprisonment.
  75. Joseph Hamelin (Métis): Point Coupée #1779; prisoner, anti-government, 1870; claimed 9 days imprisonment; Listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  76. David Harcus/ Arcus/ Arkiss (non-Aboriginal): whereabouts in 1870 unknown; listed as deceased brother of George Harcus “Sr.” (immediately below), who was apparently known as George Harcus ‘Jr’ (son of George Harcus Sr.) but the parents of David Harcus appear to have been David Harcus and Margaret Richards; did not die until 1883 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  77. George Harcus/ Arcus/ Arkiss ‘Sr.’ (non-Aboriginal): St. Andrew’s #2122; listed as deceased brother of David Harcus (immediately above) but they appear to have had different fathers (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  78. James Harper (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2133; listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  79. Philip Harper (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1792 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  80. Thomas Harrison (Métis): Ste-Anne’s/ Oak Point #2142; attended the Convention of Forty; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  81. John Hodgson (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2203, former HBC employee; listed as a carpenter (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  82. John Irvine Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2396; living on own property with family but listed as laborer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  83. Solomon Jeanviemu/ Jeanne Venne/ Venne (Métis): Pointe Coupée #5091, buffalo hunter; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  84. Archibald Johnstone (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2330, son of #2327 George Johnston; listed as brother of Charles and William Johnstone (immediately below) and as farmer of Norwood, but the latter place name did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  85. Charles Johnstone (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2329 son of #2327 George Johnston; listed as brother of Archibald Johnstone (immediately above) and William Johnstone (below) and as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  86. John Johnstone (First Nations): St. Peter’s #2337?; listed as brother of William Johnstone (below, #2338), but appears to have a different father, listed as farmer of St. Andrew’s but not found in the parish in 1870 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  87. William Johnstone (Métis): St. Clement’s #2328, son of #2327 George Johnston; listed as brother of Archibald and Charles Johnstone (above) and as farmer at Cook’s Creek (which was part of St. Peter’s until after the creation of Manitoba) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  88. William Johnstone (First Nations): St. Peter’s #2338?; listed as brother of John Johnstone (above), but appears to have a different father, listed as farmer of St. Andrew’s but not found in the parish in 1870 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  89. George Klyne (Métis): Point Coupée #2282; prisoner, December 1869; escaped 9 January 1870; claimed 30 days imprisonment; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  90. Louis Lacerte Sr. (Métis): Point Coupée #2469; self or son was Honourable member of the Legislative Assembly, Provisional Government; but listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  91. Louis Lacerte Jr. (Métis): Point Coupée, living with father #2469 Louis Lacerte; self or father was Honourable member of the Legislative Assembly, Provisional Government; but listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  92. G./ Gabriel Lafournaise (Métis): Point Coupée #2526; claimed 2 days imprisonment.
  93. Andrew Lambert (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #2578 John Lambert Sr. (below); listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  94. John Lambert Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #2550? Thomas Lambert (below); listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  95. John Lambert Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2578; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  96. Thomas Lambert (Métis): St. Andrew’s; listed as farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  97. Louis Laroque/ Larocque: uncertain ID [3 men of that name: Point Coupée #2789 is most likely]; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  98. Francis ‘Frank’ Larose/ LaRose (Métis): not a resident of Red River; Canadian from Sault Ste. Marie farming just south of Pembina U.S.; prisoner, December 1869?
  99. Andrew Lewis/ Louis/ Lewes (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2700, son of #2948  James Louis (below); listed as of Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  100. James Lewis/ Louis/ Lewes (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2948; listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  101. George Lillie/ Lily (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2893; listed as a farmer of Peguis (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  102. Hugh Linklater (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2963; listed as a farmer of Norwood (a place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  103. John Loutit/ Lowted (Métis): St. Andrew’s #2704; listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  104. R.G./ Roderick George Macbeth/ McBeath (Non-Aboriginal): Kildonan, living with his father #3275; described as “a declared supporter of the Canadian Party,” but was only 12 years old in 1870, and in his later writing, “Although he disapproves of the Riel rebellions of 1869 and 1885, he acknowledges the legitimacy of the grievances and the mistakes made by both sides, especially criticizing those in positions of authority for their lack of knowledge of western conditions and their failure to communicate their intentions.”[48]
  105. Adam McDonald Jr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of William McDonald, living with father #3480/ #3286? #3337? #3307?; listed as a grandson of Donald McDonald and as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  106. Adam McDonald Sr.: unknown ID; listed as a son of John McDonald (of uncertain ID below) and brother of Alexander McDonald (immediately below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  107. Alexander McDonald: unknown ID: listed as a son of John McDonald (of uncertain ID below) and brother of Adam McDonald Sr. (immediately above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  108. Alexander McDonald (Non-Aboriginal): probably St. Andrew’s #1716, but possibly another of the name who was the son (Métis) of #3330 Murdoch ‘Mordo McDonald; listed as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  109. Charles McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3315, son of #3318 Donald McDonald and brother of Cuthbert McDonald (below); but listed as brother of #3327 Donald McDonald (below) and as a farmer of Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  110. Cuthbert McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #3318 Donald McDonald; listed as a farmer of Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  111. Donald McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3327, son of #3328 John McDonald; but listed as brother of #3315 Charles McDonald (son of #3318 Donald McDonald) and as a farmer of Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  112. Donald McDonald Sr. (Scottish): St. Andrew’s #3318; listed as father of #3316 John McDonald (below) and deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  113. Duncan McDonald: unknown ID; listed as the son of Kenneth McDonald and brother of William McDonald (below) and as a blacksmith (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  114. John McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3316, son of #3318 Donald McDonald (above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  115. John McDonald: uncertain ID (several men of the name, but none with sons listed); listed as father of Adam McDonald Sr. and Alexander McDonald (above) and as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  116. Robert McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of William McDonald, living with father #3480/ #3286? #3337? #3307?; listed as a grandson of Donald McDonald and as a farmer of St. Andrew’s (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  117. William McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with his widowed mother, #3333 Elizabeth ‘Betsy’ Calder-McDonald; listed as the son of Kenneth McDonald and brother of Duncan McDonald (above), and as a farmer at Clandeboye (a place name that did not exist until after the creation of Manitoba) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  118. William McDonald (Métis): St. Andrew’s, son of William McDonald, living with father #3480/ #3286? #3337? #3307?; listed as a grandson of Donald McDonald and as a laborer of Fort Frances (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  119. Angus McKay (Métis): St. James #3400/ St. Charles/ St. Francois Xavier; prisoner, anti-government, 1870; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  120. Edward McKay (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3408; listed as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  121. George McKay (Métis): St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point #3395; claimed 16 days imprisonment.
  122. Roderick McKenzie: unknown ID; one of that name apparently made a claim in 1879 for destruction of property; but the only Roderick McKenzie recorded at the settlement in 1870 was just 14 years old [Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, General Index to the Journals of the House of Commons (Ottawa: Brown Chamberlin, 1891), 457]. [Possibly Alexander McKenzie of Mapleton (Métis); delegate at the Council of Twenty-four was meant, see Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Upper Fort Garry. 1869, this site.]
  123. Farquhar McLean (Scottish): St. Mary’s/ Portage #3512; claimed 29 days imprisonment.
  124. John McLean (Scottish, from Guelph ON, arrived at Red River in 1862): St. Mary’s/ Portage #3450; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 27 days imprisonment.
  125. Alexander McLean (Non-Aboriginal): St. Mary’s/ Portage, living with father  #3450 John McLean; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 27 days imprisonment.
  126. Angus McLeod (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3544; listed as brother of Duncan, John, and Malcolm McLeod (below) and of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  127. Duncan McLeod (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #3439 John McLeod; listed as brother of Angus, John, and Malcolm McLeod (above and below) and of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  128. John McLeod (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3547; listed as brother of Angus, Duncan, and Malcolm McLeod (above and below) and of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  129. Malcolm McLeod (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #3439 John McLeod; listed as brother of Angus, Duncan, and John McLeod (above) and as a farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  130. Charles McMillan/ Millan/ Milien/ McMullen (Métis): Headingly (temporary resident?); prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 23 days imprisonment.
  131. Alexander McRae/ McCrae/ McCray (Non-Aboriginal): St. Andrew’s #2776, son of #2777 Duncan McCrae; listed as the son of Duncan McCrae and as a farmer of Clandeboye (which was not a place name until after the creation of Manitoba) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  132. Goodwin Marchand/ Morchands: unknown ID, listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  133. Narcisse Marion (Lower Canadian, employed by HBC, arrived at Red River between 1835 and 1843): St. Boniface #3045; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870); an N. Marion was listed by Dennis as “Flagman” on Webb’s survey crew beginning 4 October 1869 [Canada, Sessional Papers 5, session 3, no. 12 (1870), 21.]
  134. Joseph Marion (Métis): St. Boniface #3030, son of #3045 Narcisse Marion (above); served as a messenger for J.S. Dennis [Canada, Delegates on Acquisition of Rupert’s Land and the North-West Territory, Report of Delegates … Laid Before Parliament (Ottawa: 1869), xii, 110, 113, 123 (author of letter ‘S’); see also i December 1869, Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Upper Fort Garry. 1869.].
  135. Roger Marion (Métis): St. Boniface living with father #3045 Narcisse Marion (above); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  136. Joseph Monkman (Métis): St. Peter’s #3154; in 1869 “had been promised ten shillings sterling a day by Colonel Dennis, if he should work among the Indians and excite them,” the letter commissioning him apparently embarrassed the government at Ottawa and efforts were made ensure the instructions were cancelled and to retrieve the letter (A.-A. Taché, quoted in Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Report of the Select Committee on the Causes of the Difficulties in the North-West Territory in 1869–70, 24); after the Kildonan fatal attacks left the settlement for Ontario in February with Schultz; claimed losses.
  137. Charles Moore (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3168; listed as farmer of Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  138. John Black Morrison (Métis, 16-18 years old): Headingly, living with father #3217 Angus Morrison; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 25 days imprisonment.
  139. John Morrison (Métis): St. Andrew’s #1722; listed as a farmer (but possibly mistaken ID for John Black Morrison immediately above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  140. Norman Morrison (Métis): Headingly #3218, brother of John Black Morrison above; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 25 days imprisonment.
  141. Alexander Morwick: St. Andrew’s #1700? living next to or near father #3224 James Morwick; listed as brother of George, James, John, Peter, and Thomas Morwick (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  142. George MorkwickSt. Andrew’s #1701? living next to or near father #3224 James Morwick; listed as brother of Alexander (above), James, John, Peter, and Thomas Morwick (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  143. James MorwickSt. Andrew’s #1703? living next to or near father #3224 James Morwick; listed as brother of Alexander, George (above), John, Peter, and Thomas Morwick (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  144. John Morwick: St. Andrew’s, living with father #3224 James Morwick; listed as brother of Alexander, George, James (above), Peter, and Thomas Morwick (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  145. Peter Morwick: St. Andrew’s, living with father #3224 James Morwick; listed as brother of Alexander, George, James, John (above), and Thomas Morwick (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  146. Thomas Morwick: St. Andrew’s, living with father #3224 James Morwick; listed as brother of Alexander, George, James, John, and Peter Morwick (above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  147. Andrew Mowat (Métis): St. Andrews #3232; listed as of Edmonton (where he moved some time after 1870) and brother of Thomas Mowat (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  148. David Mowat: uncertain ID (St. Andrew’s #2775?); listed as deceased brother of Edward, Robert, and Thomas Mowat Sr.s (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  149. Edward Mowat Sr.: uncertain ID (St. Andrew’s #3125? or #3233?); listed as brother of David Mowat (above), Robert Mowat Sr., and Thomas Mowat Sr. (below) and as a farmer at Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  150. John Mowat (Scottish): St. Andrew’s, born 1840 to Donald Mowat; listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  151. Robert Mowat Sr.: uncertain ID (St. Andrew’s #2754? or #2753?); listed as brother of David Mowat, Edward Mowat Sr. (above) and Thomas Mowat Sr. (below) as a carpenter at Lower Fort Garry (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  152. Thomas Mowat (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3230; listed as of Edmonton (where he moved some time after 1870) and brother of Andrew Mowat (above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  153. Thomas Mowat Sr.: uncertain ID (St. Andrew’s #3230 or #2755?); listed as brother of David Mowat, Edward Mowat Sr., and Robert Mowat Sr. (above) and as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  154. James Muir (Métis): St. Andrew’s, living with father #3239 John Muir; listed as deceased brother of John Muir (immediately below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  155. John Muir (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3238? son of #3239 John Muir; listed as deceased brother of James Muir (immediately above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  156. James Mulligan (Irish): Winnipeg #1709; formerly a sergeant with the Chelsea Pensioners; ‘High Constable’; prisoner, December 1869? released 15 February 1870? claimed 66 days imprisonment. [Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, House of Commons Debates, 1st Parliament, 4th Session, vol. 1 (1871), 388 (12 April).]
  157. Aguste/ Augustin Nolin Jr. (Métis): Ste-Anne/ Oak Point #3729; prisoner, anti-government, 1870; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  158. Charles Nolin (Métis): Ste-Anne/ Oak Point #3731; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870).
  159. Francois/ Francis Nolin (Métis): Ste-Anne/ Oak Point #3730; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  160. Norbert Nolin (Métis): Ste-Anne/ Oak Point #3728; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  161. Thomas Norquay Sr. (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3722; “carried messages between the Portage la Prairie force and Riel”; listed as deceased but did not die until 1892 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  162. James Omand (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3761, son of #3759 James Omand; listed as brother of John and Thomas Omand (below) and of Winnipeg (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  163. John Omand (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3760, son of #3759 James Omand; listed as brother of James Omand (above) and Thomas Omand (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  164. Thomas Omand: unknown ID, not found in records of inhabitants, 1870 (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  165. John ‘Johnny’ Pacquin dit Pocha (Métis): St. Margaret’s/ High Bluff #3945; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 33 days imprisonment.
  166. Joseph Pacquin dit Pocha Jr. (Métis): St. Margaret’s/ High Bluff #3775; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 29 days imprisonment.
  167. William ‘Billy’ Pacquin dit Pocha (Métis): St. Margaret’s/ High Bluff #3944; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 30 days imprisonment.
  168. Narcisse Parisien (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3826, possibly a cousin of Norbert Parisien, victim of the Kildonan fatal attack (Métis, perhaps born 1844 to Bonaventure/ Laveture Parisien dit Leger and Marguerite, a Saulteux woman, originally of Red Lake); listed as a laborer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  169. Pascal Parisien (Métis): St. Norbert #3824; possibly a cousin of Norbert Parisien, victim of the Kildonan fatal attack (Métis, perhaps born 1844 to Bonaventure/ Laveture Parisien dit Leger and Marguerite, a Saulteux woman, originally of Red Lake); was perhaps among those who sided with William Dease in protesting against the instituting of a provisional government at the settlement (see Possible Objectors to a Provisional Govt., 29 Nov. 1869, this site); listed as author of “To the Editor of the Liberal,” Manitoba Liberal (15 March 1872), 2; claimed 14 days imprisonment; but also apparently served in the Provisional Government’s settlement guard, and was listed as a witness for the defense at the trial of Ambroise Lepine, 1874, for the ‘murder’ of Thomas Scott?
  170. H./ Honore Pariseau/ Parisien (Lower Canadian): St. Boniface #3573; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Weekly Manitoban (20 May 1871).
  171. James Park (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3847; listed as farmer of Parkdale, but that place name that did not exist until some time after the creation of Manitoba (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  172. James Peebles (Métis): St. Andrew’s; listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  173. William Peebles (Métis): St. Andrew’s #3879; listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  174. J.B./ Jean Baptiste Peron/ Perrault Sr (Lower Canadian): Ste-Anne/ Oak Point #3899, but possibly his son Baptiste Perreault dit Morin Jr. (Non-Aboriginal); listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  175. Bon Homme Plouff: unknown ID, listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  176. ‘Sergeant’ Micheal Power (Irish): St. James #3966 at Sturgeon Creek; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870? claimed 30 days imprisonment.[49]
  177. William Pruden: uncertain ID (St. Andrew’s #4033? or St. Clement’s #4029?); listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  178. Georges ‘Shaman’/ Shamon/ Shawman/ Chamblin/ Racette Jr. (Métis): hunter/ trader, not a permanent resident; a “great friend” of Schultz, rumoured to be a liaison with “the Sioux”.[50]
  179. Andrew Richard/ Richards: unknown ID (the only one of that name recorded at Red River in 1870 was 16 years old) listed as deceased (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  180. William Richard/ Richards (Métis): St. Andrew’s #4174; listed as a farmer (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  181. Alexander Ross: unknown ID (two men of the name, neither of St. Andrew’s, nor with brothers named George and John): listed as deceased brother of George and John Ross (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  182. George Ross: unknown ID, not found in records of inhabitants 1870; listed as a farmer of St. Andrew’s and brother of Alexander Ross (above) and John Ross (below) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  183. John Ross: unknown ID, not found in records of inhabitants 1870; listed as deceased brother of Alexander and George Ross (above) (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  184. Malcolm Ross: unknown ID, not found in records of inhabitants 1870; listed as farmer of Cook’s Creek (AM MG12 EI 8450-8453).
  185. Herbert L. Sabine (Englander): Headingly #4345; claimed 31 days imprisonment.
  186. George William Sanderson (Métis): St. Margaret’s/ High Bluff #4335; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 30 days imprisonment.
  187. James Francis Sanderson (Métis): St. Margaret’s/ High Bluff; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 27 days imprisonment.
  188. Joseph Savoyard (Métis): Kildonan #4743?; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)
  189. John James Setter (Métis): St. Mary’s/ Portage #4361; left the settlement for Ontario.
  190. David Spence (Métis): St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point #4430; claimed 16 days imprisonment.
  191. Thomas Spence: uncertain ID (at least 3 men of the name); claimed 1 and 1/2 days imprisonment.
  192. Charles Stodgaill/ Stodgill (Englander): St. James #4489; former Chelsea Pensioner; prisoner, ‘Fort Schultz’ surrender 1869; released 15 February 1870.
  193. Pierre St. Germain: uncertain ID, at least 4 men of the name; claimed 2 days imprisonment.
  194. William Sutherland (Métis): Headingly, living with father #4527; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 23 days imprisonment.
  195. David Tait (Métis): St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point; claimed 17 days imprisonment.
  196. Alexander Taylor (Métis? or Canadian?): described as ‘farmer’ St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point, possibly #4635; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; released prior to 15 March (claimed 23 days imprisonment); returned to ON?
  197. David Taylor (Métis? or Canadian?): described as ‘farmer’ St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point possibly son of #4639 James Taylor; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; among 15 March release? (claimed 32 days imprisonment); returned to ON?
  198. Herbert Taylor (Métis? or Canadian?): described as of St. Ann’s/ Poplar Point, possibly son of #4639 James Taylor; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; released prior to 15 March? (claimed 21 days imprisonment); returned to ON? (or was Métis?)
  199. John Taylor (Métis): Headingly #4641; representative at the Convention of Forty; prisoner after Kildonan fatal attacks, 1870; claimed 32 days imprisonment.
  200. Louis Thibault (Canadian): St. Boniface #4657; listed as ‘Loyal Half-breed’ Daily Telegraph (15 July 1870)

 

 

~~~

The Canadas’ Campaign

Reconnaissance:

Hind

Simon James Dawson

Propaganda phase 1:

road ruse[g]

Covert Invasion:

[e]

Mobilization:

[x]

First Attack on Upper Fort Garry: the War of Words

Outcome:

Stalemate: annexation rejected; no agreement to confederate

Casualties: 0

Prisoners: something over 40 Canadians and a few supporters (but probably less than 50).

HBC Government collapse; Martial Law imposed by Provisional Government at Upper Fort Garry

Attack on Upper Fort Garry II:

casualties: 3

prisoners:

Retreat to Ontario:

[y]

Propaganda Phase 2:

Overt Invasion:

“The Manitoba Act could have been the end of the affair save that the Canadians could not tolerate the new order and the success of their admitted foes.”[a]

Retribution:

casualties:

 

___________________________________

[1] See George T. Denison, The Struggle for Imperial Unity: Recollections and Experiences (Toronto: McMillan and Co., 1909), on the formation, deliberations, and activities of the Canada First organization.

[2] D. R. Owram, “The Great North West: The Canadian Expansionist Movement and the Image of the West in the Nineteenth Century,” Ph.D. diss. (Toronto: University of Toronto, 1976), afterwards published as Doug Owram, Promise of Eden: The Canadian Expansionist Movement and the Idea of the West, 1856-1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980), appears to have coined the name. Doug Owram, “‘Conspiracy and Treason’: The Red River Resistance From an Expansionist Perspective,” Prairie Forum 3, no. 2 (1978): 173 n. 4, adds “For convenience the term expansionist will be used henceforth to describe members of the Canada Party, Canada First movement and individuals like [George] Brown and [William] McDougall who strongly opposed the rebellion.” Owram identifies four phases of Canadian Expansionist progress, which can be summarized as:

  1. developing “presuppositions” i.e. justifications for narrowing the field of opportunity (adopting ‘them vs. us’ division as a strategy);
  2. Othering the Métis — as marginal human beings, who are “dupes” of the real enemy, Catholicism;
  3. alienation of French Canada;
  4. identifying French Canada as the principal enemy of future Canadian progress.

The end result being: a divided Canada; and thorough marginalization of Aboriginal peoples now deemed peripheral to the ongoing battle(s) between two — the ‘only’–  ‘founding nations.’

[3] See Canada, Governor General, Report of Delegates Appointed to Negotiate for the Acquisition of Rupert’s Land and the North-West Territory (Ottawa: 1869), 11, 13, 15, where the term invasion is used to describe Canada’s building of a road in Hudson’s Bay Company territory; and references to invasion in Canada, Parliament, North-West Committee, “North-West Committee Evidence,” 175, 177.

[4] D.N. Sprague, review “Douglas Owram, Promise of Eden: The Canadian Expansionist Movement and the Idea of the West,” Manitoba History 4 (1982).

[5] Farlax, “annex,” The Free Dictionary online (accessed 23 September 2014); “annex,” Oxford Dictionaries online (accessed 23 September 2014);annex,” Cambridge Dictionaries online (accessed 23 September 2014). Shore, 37, notes, “As a result of … expansionist thinking, as early as March 5, 1857, the Ontario Counties of Lanark and Renfrew had petitioned the Legislature of Upper Canada to annex the possessions of the HBC.”

[6] Farlax, “annexation,” Free Dictionary (accessed 23 September 2014); see also “annexation,” OneLook dictionary search online (accessed 25 September 2014).

[7] Farlax, “confederation,” Free Dictionary (accessed 23 September 2014); “Confederation,” Wikipedia (accessed 23 September 2014); “confederation,” dictionary, Vocabulary.com (accessed 23 September 2014).

[8]Invasion,” Wikipedia (accessed 23 September 2014).

[9] See Canada, Report of Delegates Appointed to Negotiate, passim; and Owram, Promise of Eden, 46, especially on the comments by Vankoughnet. See also W.L. Morton, “Vankoughnet, Philip Mathew Micheal Scott,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography online [DCB] (accessed 25 September 2014); “What Shall We Do With It?” reprint from the Hamilton Weekly Times, in the New Nation (6 August 1870), 2, in which the financial expense of confederation is described; and John A. Macdonald as quoted in “By Telegraph [Ottawa],” Manitoban and Northwest Herald (17 May 1873), 2, (which in turn relies on the Morning Chronicle). When pressed in the Canadian House of Commons for federal funding for Manitoba, Macdonald responded that the province:

might leave Confederation tomorrow for all he cared. It had been a nuisance and a trouble to the Dominion ever since it became a Province of Canada, and it was contrary to his wish that it had ever been admitted (cries of order). He did not care though it was sunk (loud cries of order and uproar).

[10] D.N. Sprague, Canada and the Métis, 1869-1885 (Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1988), 19, notes, “Abruptly in 1854, the last ‘wild land’ suitable for farming went up for auction in Bruce County. The leading newspaper of Toronto, George Brown’s Globe, reported that an important milestone had been passed. An era had ended. Canada needed ‘new worlds to conquer’.” See also Owram, Promise of Eden, 38, 44, 47.

[11] Randy William Widdis, With Scarcely a Ripple: Anglo-Canadian Migration into the United States and Western Canada 1880-1920 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill – Queen’s University Press, 1998), 57. John C. Weaver, The Great Land Rush and the Making of the Modern World 1650-1900 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill – Queen’s University Press, 2003); and Junius P. Rodriguez, The Louisiana Purchase: A Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2002), 179, show the practice had precedent. See also Christina Burr, “‘Oil Mania’: Colonial Land Policy, Land Speculation, and Settlement in Enniskillen Township, 1830s–1860s,” Histoire sociale/ Social History 38, no. 76 (2005), 306, who concludes “to gain a full understanding of land speculation in nineteenth-century Upper Canada, historians must also consider smaller-scale speculation”; Randy William Widdis, “Motivation and Scale: A Method of Identifying Land Speculators in Upper Canada,” Canadian Geographer 23, no. 4 (1979), 338–351; William Shannon, “Brokers, Land Bankers, and ‘Birds of Evil Omen’: The Effect of Land Policies on Settlement in Upper Canada’s Collingwood Township, 1834–1860,” M.A. thesis (Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 1989); John Clarke, Land, Power, and Economics on the Frontier of Upper Canada (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001), 304–312.

[12] Ibid. See also, for example, “Dominion Parliament, House of Commons,” Daily Globe (21 June 1869), 4 column 2, and discussion of Ontario annexing Rupert’s Land; An Imperial Guarantee for the Pacific Railroad,” Nor’-Wester (21 September 1869), 1; “Railway Schemes for the Northwest,” Nor’-Wester (23 November 1869), 2; John Foster, Railway from Lake Superior to Red River Settlement, considered in a letter to the Hon. Wm. McDougall [sic], C.B., Minister of Public Works (Montreal: Printed by John Lovell, 1869); Canada, Parliament, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 2d session, vol. 2 (1869), 79, on Canada’s expectation of reaping wealth from natural resources and settlement in the North-West. “The Kansas Burning Well,” New Nation (11 March 1870), 1, on tapping into natural resources; Notice in New Nation (23 July 1870), 2, on development in Kansas; “Terrible State of Affairs in Missouri,” Nor’-Wester (1 October 1861), 3, on the prior invasion and rebellion in Kansas.

[13] Canada, Parliament, “Sir F. Sandford to Secretary to Treasury,” Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurrences in the Northwest (Ottawa: 1870), 150. See also “An Imperial Guarantee for the Pacific Railroad,” Nor’-Wester (21 September 1869), 1; and Liveo Di Matteo, “A Debt Interpretation of Canadian Confederation,” Worthwhile Canadian Initiative, a mainly Canadian economics blog (accessed 25 September 2014). Confederation could not bring Upper Canada/ Ontario out of debt without greater access to more resources. Annexing Rupert’s Land was considered an easy, because relatively inexpensive, way to solve that problem. See John A. Macdonald quoted in Great Britain, Parliament, House of Commons, “Parliamentary Summary [4 May 1870],” jn “Correspondence Relative to the Recent Disturbances in the Red River Settlement,” Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, session 8 February -10 August 1870, vol. 50, Colonies and British Possessions continued vol. 10 (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1870), 133; and Sprague, Canada and the Métis, 28-29, who notes that in 1869 Macdonald set aside “$1.5 million — a sum equivalent to about one-twentieth of the national revenue of the day — … under the ‘North-West’ account.”

[14]Schemes in Canada,” New Nation (13 May 1870), 2, which adds, “Had the mad attempts of the partizans [sic] of McDougall never been made in our midst, we would not have suffered as we have done”, any divisions within the settlement would have been “easily settled” [sic: italics in source]; “Enquire Within,” New Nation (17 May 1870), 2; and “Canadian Carpet-Baggers,” (21 January 1870), 1. See also “Canada’s Blundering,” New Nation (14 January 1870), 2 columns 1, 2, 3, 4; “The Past and Present,” New Nation (22 April 1870), 2 columns 5, 6, 7; “Our Defence,” New Nation (3 May 1870), 1 columns 1, 2; and Alexander Begg, The Creation of Manitoba, Or, A History of the Red River Troubles (Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Company, 1871), 90 (and passim).

[15] Lovell Clarke, “Schultz, Sir John Christian,” DCB. Owram, “Conspiracy and Treason,” 160, 161; and Owram, Promise of Eden, 30, 40, 47, 81, imply James Ross, William Coldwell, and William Kennedy can be counted among the annexationists/ expansionists (Along with Roderick Kennedy, William’s brother). While they were interested in having Red River settlement relieved of HBC governance, they contemplated arrangements other than summary annexation — such as acquiring colonial status, or entering the Confederation as a territory destined to become a province. Their responses in councils and conventions held at Red River, subsequent to the arrival of William McDougall, show they were not in favour of either a military takeover, or “a mere transaction in real estate,” such as the Rupert’s Land Act (1868) represented, without consultation of the people of Red River settlement. [the ‘real estate’ quote source is W.L. Morton, Manitoba: A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1957), 117.]

[16] See Notice, Nor’-Wester (8 July 1868), 3, which remarks on an influx Canadians at Portage la Prairie; and, for example, “Our ElephantNew Nation (7 January 1870), 1, which notes that Canadian surveyors had occupied “a portion of the country never hitherto surveyed, and over which the Indian title is still unextinguished” [italics in source].

[17] Frederick John Shore, “The Canadians and the Métis: the re-creation of Manitoba, 1858-1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1991), 85, 87-96, describes the “350 Spencer and Peabody rifles,” with “10,000” rounds of ammunition, and the genesis of plans to send them. Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986), 58, avers the guns were transported “just in case they might be needed, … either by a group of people already in the Settlement or by a group to come later.”

[18] Nor’-Wester (12 January 1869), cited in Owram, “Conspiracy and Treason,” 160  n. 10. Alfred Thomas Phillips, “Development of Municipal Institutions in Manitoba to 1886,” M.A. thesis (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1948), 2-3, comments on Schultz’s attempt to become a member of the Council of Assiniboia. Phillips cites E.H. Oliver, The Canadian North-West: its early development and legislative records : minutes of the councils of the Red River Colony and the Northern Department of Rupert’s Land, vol. I (Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1914), 573-574, which notes there was a counter petition, “praying the Council not appoint Dr. Schultz to a seat in it, as being in their opinion not an eligible person to fill the office.” See also Archives of Manitoba [AM], MG12 E1, J.C. Schultz Papers, Personal Correspondence, 1858-1887, Box 15, letter to Joseph McDougall (23 April 1869), and his comment that non-democratic governance was preferable until Anglo-Canadian dominance was assured. On Schultz’s contact with Ottawa see Begg, Creation of Manitoba, 30; and Library and Archives Canada [LAC], John A. Macdonald Correspondence April 01, 1870, MIKAN no. 516206; LAC, John A. Macdonald Correspondence April, 1870, MIKAN no. 495868; LAC, John A. Macdonald Correspondence April 06, 1870, MIKAN no,  523362; LAC John A. Macdonald Correspondence May 20, 1870, MIKAN no. 498258 (in which John C. Schultz writes that he will accept a position as senator). On Red River opinions of Schultz see Notice, New Nation (28 January 1870), 3, “The political prisoner, Doctor Schultz, made his escape from Fort Garry”; “The Revolution! Liberation of the Prisoners. A Portage Detachment Gobbled Up! Election of the Members for the Council,” New Nation (25 February 1870), 2, describes the mustering at Kildonan, naming Charles Arkoll Boulton, Adam Clark Webb, John Christian Schultz, and Charles Mair as “the principal figures”; estimates that at one point 600 or 700 men had gathered on the Canadian party side; describes preparations to mount defense at Upper Fort Garry (500 men); notes all 24 remaining prisoners were released – they were those who had refused to swear an oath of good behaviour and allegiance to the Provisional Government, including 4 who had been sentenced to banishment to the U.S. [note: this release is an exceptionally humanitarian show of good will in the circumstances (tactically, prisoners could have been kept to discourage wholesale attack; alternately, as the stated reason for attack was release of prisoners, setting them free forestalls attack and removes that rationale – attackers become ‘barbarians’)]; recounts deaths of Parisien and Sutherland; notes a Council of War was instated by Canadians, who refused to recognize the authority of Provisional Government, but called for amnesty for Schultz and Dease, sending [Thomas] Norquay as messenger to Upper Fort Garry, received a reply and disbanded; describes capture of Portage and Assiniboine men, naming the prisoners; Notice, New Nation (11 February 1870), 3, Schultz is “somewhere near Lake Winnipeg, enjoying his opium cura digitalis,” and he has been declared a perpetual exile by the Provisional Government; Notice, New Nation (25 February 1870), 2, Schultz has escaped capture and was heading for Canada as of 20 February 1870; “The Flea in the Fable,” New Nation (13 May 1870), 2; “Schultz & Mair and their Associates Advocate Mob Law at Toronto to Lynch Our Delegates,” New Nation (13 May 1870), 1, reprinted from the Stratford Beacon (15 April 1870); “The Dominion Cabinet and the North-West,” New Nation (20 May 1870), 1, a reprint from the Sarnia Observer discussing why Confederation is unpopular, the blunders made by Cabinet in Ottawa with respect to Red River, and faults the ignoring of the settlers, and ignoring of the HBC governor’s and RC clergy’s concerns and reports; decries the denial of representative government by Canada; identifies the lack of assurance of land recognition as a mistake; avers Americans have been shown to take more interest in settlers’ views than Canada; faults the meddling and ‘mischief’ of ‘obnoxious’ Canadian ‘employees in the country’ (naming Dawson, Snow, Dennis, Bown, and Schultz); discusses the lack of recognition of the Hay Privilege; faults surveyors’ behaviour; criticizes the insinuation of Canadian ‘Military School Cadets’ in ranks of Canadian work crews; criticizes the characterization of Red River people as ‘semi-savage’; chracterizes Canada as a “cowed bully.” See also Donald A. Smith, “1875: Donald A. Smith defends his role in the Resistance,” and “1876: Donald A. Smith defends his version of events, again,” this site; and A.G.B. Bannatyne, “1876: A.G.B. Bannatyne recounts the Resistance,” this site; Joseph James Hargrave, Red River (Montreal: John Lovell, 1871), 391-392; G[eorge] Dugas, Histoire véridique des faits qui ont préparé le mouvement des métis à la Rivière-Rouge en 1869 (Montreal: Librairie Beauchemin, 1905), 12-13; and Ronaghan, Archibald Administration, 11-12.

[19] On Red River opinions of Bown see Notice, New Nation (11 February 1870), 3, Bown was at “Eagle’s Nest, a post of the Hon. Hudson’s Bay Company,” but left post for Canada via Lake of the Woods and Thunder Bay; and “Extract from a Letter picked up on the street. A Precious Pair. How some people have been gulled by their friends,” New Nation (13 My 1870), 2.

[20] Although described as a Canadian of Woodhouse, Norfolk County, ON, Meade was born in Vermont, U.S. He migrated to the North-West in 1866 as an HBC employee, then moved to Red River that same year and married Mary Rachel Ashford, daughter of James Ashford, a Chelsea Pensioner. By some accounts, it is Meade who sketched the execution Thomas Scott — though by that time he had been released by the Provisional Government and had moved with his wife and son to Fort Alexander. See Lyle Dick, “Nationalism and Visual Media in Canada: The Case of Thomas Scott’s Execution,” Manitoba History 48 (autumn/ winter 2004-2005); and “Meade Home Page,” Meade-Quesnel Genealogy website (accessed 30 September 2014).

[21] See NoticeNew Nation (21 January 1870), 2, for rumours of Canadian Party doings at Poplar Point, High Bluff, and the Portage, with an oblique reference either to rum or to John C. Schultz’s father-in-law, as a.k.a. “Jamaica and Demarara.”

[22]A Loyal Deputation,” New Nation (13 My 1870), 2, also comments on and dismisses Lynch’s description of imprisonment of “loyal” people at Fort Garry, and his claim that his views were shared by 2/3 of the Red River population, pointing out that, as far as ‘loyalty’ went, all Red River settlers were “loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen.” See also J.M. Bumsted, “Thomas Scott and the Daughter of Time,” Thomas Scott’s Body, and Other Essays on Early Manitoba History (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2000), 163; Great Britain, Parliament, House of Commons, “Parliamentary Summary [4 May 1870],” in “Correspondence Relative to the Recent Disturbances in the Red River Settlement,” Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, session 8 February – 10 August 1870, vol. 50, Colonies and British Possessions continued vol. 10 (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1870), 133; James Lynch, letter to John Young (6 September 1871), in Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Journals of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada vol. 8, 1st session, 3d parliament (Ottawa: I.B. Taylor, 1874), 197; Canada, Senate, Report of the Select Committee of the Senate on the Subject of Rupert’s Land, Red River, and the North-West Territory (Ottawa: 1870), 21. W.L. Morton ed., Alexander Begg’s Red River journal: and other papers relative to the Red River resistance of 1869-1870 (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1956), 320 n. 1, see also 217 n.1, cites the AM, Rebellion Records, to verify Begg’s observation that Lynch was responsible for paying “the men enrolled by Dennis,” but identifies him as “Joseph Lynch M.D.”.

[23] See “Transcripts: The Red River Letters of Charles Mair,” “Transcript: The North-West Papers (letter by Charles Mair),” “Transcript: Re: ‘The North-West Papers’ (Mair’s Letter to Macdougall),” “Transcript: Hamilton Spectator Re: Mair’s Letter to Macdougall,” and “Transcript: Mair (late of Red River) invents the Settlement, the Métis, and the Resistance for the Globe,” this site; Begg, Creation of Manitoba, 12, 16, 18, 21, 22, 28, 57, 58, 83, 85, 215, 280, 282; and Alexander Begg, “Dot it down” a story of life in the North- West (Toronto: Hunter, Rose, 1871), in which Mair is parodied as the thinly disguised ‘Dot.’

[24] John A. Snow, letter to William McDougall (9 November 1868), in Canada, Parliament, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 2d session, vol. 2 (1869), 49;  “Extracts of letters from Governor Mactavish,” in Canada, Parliament, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 2d session, vol. 2 (1869), 11; “Aggravated Assault,” Nor’-Wester (26 October 1869), 1; “The Quarterly Court,” Nor’-Wester (23 November 1869), 1; “Grand Jury,” Red River Pioneer (1 December 1869), 1 columns 2-3; “Canada’s Blundering,” New Nation (14 January 1870), 2; Canada, Report of Delegates Appointed to Negotiate, 12; Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Select Committee, Report of the Select Committee on the Causes of the Difficulties in the North-West Territory in 1869–70 (Ottawa: I.B. Taylor, 1874), 8, 9, 13, 68, 115, 133, 172, 174, 186, 201.

[25] See also Notice, Nor’-Wester (8 July 1868), 3, which mentions Young’s arrival (and also remarks on an influx Canadians at Portage la Prairie); George Young, Manitoba Memories, being leaves from my life in the prairie province (Toronto, 1897); and “George Young (1821-1910),” Memorable Manitobans, Manitoba Historical Society (accessed 30 September 2014).

[26] Prior to 5 June 1863, the Sixth Battalion Volunteer Militia, Canada, or ‘Hochelaga Light Infantry’ had been the 6th Battalion Fusiliers, which in turn had originated in Montreal, Quebec, 31 January 1862 as the 6th Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles, Canada. See Canada, Standing Orders of the Sixth Battalion Volunteer Militia (Montreal: 1864). See also University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine Archives, “O’Donnell, John Harrison,” which lists both 1881 and 1861 as the year of graduation from Victoria University, Toronto — either date might be a typographical error. Morton ed., Alexander Begg’s Red River Journal, 320 n. 1, cites AM, Rebellion Records, as verifying Begg’s observation that O’Donnell took over from Lynch in “paying off the men enrolled by Dennis.” See also John H. O’Donnell, Manitoba as I saw it, from 1869 to date: with flash-lights on the first Riel Rebellion (Winnipeg: Clark Bros., 1909).

[27] See Canada, Sessional Papers 5, session 3, no, 12 (1870), 21; “The Revolution! Liberation of the Prisoners,” New Nation (25 February 1870), 2; J.C. Waddell, Pioneer Life on the Bay of Quinte (Toronto: Rolph and Clark, 1904), 865866, which explains how Webb avoided becoming a prisoner.

[28]The Ontario Regiment (RCAC),” http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/ webpage (accessed 30 September 2014); “James Wallace, c. 1873,” Whitby Public Library webpage, http://images.ourontario.ca/whitby/ (accessed 30 September 2014); John A. Snow letter to William McDougall (1 September 1869), in Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurences in the North-west (Ottawa: I.B. Taylor, 1870), 16, citing the cost of the pork and beans ($2,700) to be purchased by Wallace with Dennis at St. Paul U.S.; “Statement of Supplies at Red River Settlement, on the 20th November, 1869,” in Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurences in the North-west (Ottawa: I.B. Taylor, 1870), 24; H.P. Dwight, telegram to John A, Macdonald (20 December 1869), in Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurences in the North-west (Ottawa” I.B. Taylor, 1870), 81; “Notes by J.W. between 4th and 22nd November, 1869,” in Canada, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 3d session, no. 12 (1870), 61. ‘J.W.’ is Major James Wallace of Whitby, Ontario, mentioned by Joseph Howe in the letter immediately preceding the one cited above. Howe writes that Wallace “was sent from this place [Pembina U.S.] on the 4th November on a special mission to Fort Garry, and … returned on the 22nd.” See also “Interesting Revelations, One of McDougall’s Spies, Major J.W., The Pembina Detective On Our Track,” New Nation (15 April 1870), 1 columns 1-4; and “1876: A.G.B. Bannatyne recounts the Resistance,” this site.

[29]  See Canada, Sessional Papers 5, session 3, no. 12 (1870), 20; “The Revolution! Liberation of the Prisoners,” New Nation (25 February 1870), 2; Notice, New Nation (2 April 1870 [listed as 16 March at the Manitobia site]), 3, about a collection of books lent to ‘Captain’ Boulton while he was prisoner: and Advertisement, New Nation (2 April 1870 [listed as 16 March at the Manitobia site]), 3, regarding same. Ronaghan, “Archibald Adminstration,” 38, notes Boulton was with Wilner Hart’s survey party. See also Charles Arkoll Boulton, Reminiscences of the NorthWest rebellions, with a record of the raising of Her Majesty’s 100th Regiment in Canada, and a chapter on Canadian social & political life (Toronto: Grip Printing and Publishing, 1886).

[30] Notice, New Nation (11 February 1870), 3, mentions Dennis at Toronto, in aid of “Cannekdom” — returned, released prisoners who report to him.

[31] J.S. Dennis, “Record of Proceedings …,” (2 December 1869), in Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurences in the North-west (Ottawa: I.B. Taylor, 1870), 108, mentions Gammie Laurie.

[32] William McDougall, quoted in Sprague, Canada and the Métis, 28. (See “[B.9] The North-West Territories,” Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurences in the Northwest…, 104 – 105.) George E. Cartier and William McDougall, Report, in Canada, Parliament, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 2d session, vol. 2 (1869), 61. Mason Wade, The French Canadians, 1760-1945 (Toronto: Macmillan, 1955), 395.

[33] Born Halifax, Nova Scotia, 25 April 1834 to Hugh Innes Cameron of Scotland; married Emma TupperG. Tulchinsky ed.To Preserve and Defend: Essays on Kingston in the Nineteenth Century (Montreal and Kingston: McGill – Queen’s University Press, 1976), 125. See also Archives of Manitoba – Donald Roderick Cameron fonds.

[34]

[35]  Doug Grant, “The Hon. Albert Norton Richards,” Handbook of Brockville History blog http://brockvillehistoryhandbook.wordpress.com (posted 3 January 2013).

[36]

[37] Born 9 February 1844 at Toronto ON. Ran a medical practice at Portage la Prairie, 1871-1873; moved to Winnipeg, practicing to 1877; was a signatory of the Norway House Treaty (1875), with the Saulteaux and Swampy Cree residing at the mouth of the Saskatchewan River; served on the Council of Keewatin. See http://www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/treaties/treaty5-e.html; Beren’s River Treaty,
http://www.usask.ca/nativelaw/treaty6.html, and
http://homepage.usask.ca/~rhf330/treaty6.html

[38] Data taken from: Hector A. Langevin, “Report,” in Canada, Parliament, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 2d session, vol. 2 (1869); Nor’-Wester (29 May 1869); New Nation; The Red River Insurrection: Three Letters and a Narrative of Events (Montral: John Lovell, 1870), 11; Alexander Begg, Alexander Begg’s Red River journal: and other papers relative to the Red River resistance of 1869-1870, ed. W.L. Morton (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1956); Robert B. Hill, Manitoba: history of its early settlement, development and resources (Toronto: William Briggs, 1890); George T. Denison, ed. [attributed], Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion of 1869 ([c.1874]), 22; Isaac Cowie, The Company of Adventurers : a narrative of seven years in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company during 1867-1874, on the great buffalo plains; with historical and biographical notes and comments (Toronto: William Briggs, 1913); Henry Woodington, “Diary of A Prisoner in Red River Rebellion,” Niagara Historical Society 25 (1913); Peter McArthur, “The Red River Rebellion,” Manitoba Pageant 17, no. 2 (Winter 1972); Archibald Census 1870; Frederick John Shore, “The Canadians and the Métis: the re-creation of Manitoba, 1858-1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1991), 62, Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986), 38. See also “Prisoners,” this site.

[39] Lived at the Portage with his father and brother.

[40]

[41] “Arrivals,” Nor’-Wester (10 July 1869), 2; Donald Codd, “Some reminiscences of Fort Garry in 1869–70,” Great West Magazine 13 (Winnipeg, 1899): 294–299. “The Revolution! Liberation of the Prisoners. A Portage Detachment Gobbled Up! Election of the Members for the Council,” New Nation (25 February 1870), 2; D.N. Sprague “Codd, Donald,” DCB.

[42] Hamilton’s identity is not clear. He was described as ‘of Ottawa’; arrived with Snow on 5 July 1869; described his profession as surveyor; prisoner 7 December; and left with Snow on 6 January — so this apparently was not Colin Hamilton who left months later (though the date of Colin’s arrival is unknown). “Arrivals,” Nor’-Wester (10 July 1869), 2. Yet, Hamilton might have been related to Alexander Begg’s wife (though no link had been found to date). See also Notice, New Nation (11 February 1870), 3, which states Hamilton is at the Portage with 30 men. See also reference to “Mr. Hamilton,” the New Nation (6 May 1870).

[43] “Arrivals,” Nor’-Wester (10 July 1869), 2.

[44] Frederick John Shore, “The Canadians and the Métis: the re-creation of Manitoba, 1858-1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1991), 47, 54.

[45] The number increases still more if the Possible Objectors to a Provisional Government, 29 Nov. 1869, who have not been added to this list on this page, are included.

[46] Bill Gessner, “St. Andrew’s Parish,” in Beyond the Gates of Lower Fort Garry, A Sequel (Clandeboye MB: R.M. of St. Andrew’s, 1999), 156-158.

[47] Canada, Parliament, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurrences in the Northwest (Ottawa: 1870) [see Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Upper Fort Garry. 1869, this site]; Canada, Sessional Papers 5, session 3, no. 12 (1870), 21, notes Dease received 75 cents of each dollar paid to P. Vallette, hired as “Driver and camp cook”; Dease received the full wages paid to A. Delorme, Jos. Delorme, G. La Fournaise, and W. La Fournaise — all of whom were hired as “Driver and axeman”; but Dease “did not personally belong to Mr. Webb’s party.”

[48] R.G. Macbeth; Shore, 9.?; see also Macbeth, Making of the West 52-53. http://parl.canadiana.ca/view/oop.debates_HOC0104_01/425?r=0&s=2

[49] Apparently mis-identified as Charles Power by Alexander Begg, Begg’s Red River Journal, 111.  [Note: In October 1870 a Robert Power was appointed by Canadian Lieutenant Governor Adams George Archibald to the police force.] But he may be confused with Micheal Powers — see [22] below. The New Nation only identified a “Sergeant Powers” of St. James  http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/02/25/2/Ar00203.html/Olive . William Cowan refers to “Sergeant-Major Power” https://hallnjean2.wordpress.com/chronology-after-the-resistance-1870-1871-2/1875-donald-a-smith-defends-his-role-in-the-resistance/; Mactavish identifies him as Micheal Power https://hallnjean2.wordpress.com/chronology-after-the-resistance-1870-1871-2/1876-a-g-b-bannatyne-recounts-the-resistance/; Or Micheal Powers of Sturgeon Creek, a Chelsea Out-Pensioner of the rank of Sergeant? see Morton in  Begg, http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/champlain/DigObj.cfm?Idno=9_96843&Lang=eng&Page=0213&Size=3&query=sergeant%20AND%20powers&searchtype=Fulltext&startrow=1&Limit=All; see also Sergeant Powers said to be from Headingly http://eir.library.utoronto.ca/champlain/DigObj.cfm?Idno=9_96843&lang=eng&Page=0344&Size=3&query=sergeant%20AND%20powers&searchtype=Fulltext&startrow=1&Limit=All; the census puts him at lot 96, [1678-1679] Michael Powers (Irish, born 1813 to Richard Powers and an unidentified woman) married Annie W. Scott (Scottish, born 1823 to John Scott and an unidentified woman) [and Catherine Stevenson (First Nations, born 1837)?]- [1680-1684] Richard 20, John 15, Henry 13, Thomas 8, Lily 5.[#3966]

[50] Begg, Red River Journal350.

 

 

[x] “The Winnipeg Revolution. Speech of Hon. A. Ramsey in the United States Senate, Intimate Relations of Winnipeg to Minnesota,” describes progress of McDougall, Dennis and Schultz; http://books.google.ca/books?id=6rENAAAAQAAJ&lpg=PA33&ots=uL4Sn-Ji5h&dq=william%20mcdougall%20to%20red%20river%20settlement%201869&pg=PA38#v=onepage&q&f=false

[y] “Departures” William Drever [Jr.] and Dr. Lynch for Canada [both supporters of the Canadian Party; Lynch a former prisoner, perhaps Drever was as well. See Prisoners, this site.]

http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/02/25/2/Ar00205.html/Olive

 

[a] Shore, 2.

 

 

[e] J.A. Macdonald to McDougall, 23 November 1869 re ‘Indians’ as support and plan for a military force in the spring http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=543210&rec_nbr_list=543210,7975,550135,204875,338,13935,4047078,3728839,3846039,102877

 

[g] http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSnQAAAAMAAJ&dq=william%20mcdougall%20to%20red%20river%20settlement%201869&pg=RA3-PA13#v=onepage&q&f=false


Published 24 September 2014; updated 3 December 2015

 

 

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