Prisoners

Historian Frederick J. Shore has observed that “278 Canadians and their supporters … were directly involved in actions against the Métis during the time that the Provisional Government was in power.” Shore also calculated that there were 34 ‘French’ Métis and 68 ‘English’ Métis who supported the Canadian Party. It is possible that there were considerably more [see “Alleged Red River Recruits,” The ‘Canadian Party’ Attack on Assiniboia: Annexation vs. Confederation; and “Possible Objectors to a Provisional Government, 29 Nov. 1869,” this site]. It seems individual Métis ‘supporters’ participated in Canadian movements to varying degrees, however, and that at various times they changed allegiances.[1]

Canadian nationalist histories (written from 1870 to approximately the 1960s),  tend to vaunt the tribulations of members and affiliates of the Canadian Party at Red River, while obscuring precise details as to:

  • who was actually incarcerated and when (many arrests were rumored, but cannot be confirmed);
  • by what organization were they incarcerated and on whose authority (Louis Riel is invariably portrayed as dictating the action of French ‘half-breeds’/ Métis);
  • and why incarceration might have seemed prudent to the supporters of locally mustered provisional governance.

The following entries attempt to address some of the questions raised by previous accounts and isolate points of confusion, with an eye to further research

[1] Frederick John Shore, “The Canadians and the Métis: the re-creation of Manitoba, 1858-1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1991), 47, 54.

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Q: Which William Hallet was arrested? When?

A William Hallett (classed as ‘English’ and a Protestant), was one of the first Métis arrested for being  a Canadian Party sympathizer. He was taken prisoner by the Comité National des Métis (under President John Bruce), prior to the official advent of a provisional government.

On 1, 2, or 3 November 1869 (depending on the source consulted), a William Hallett was “arrested and securely bound,” at the Hudson’s Bay Company Fort at Pembina, by “a company of Red River cavalry.”[1] His offence was having acted as a guide to ‘Colonel’ John Stoughton Dennis, who was Canadian Lieutenant-Governor designate William McDougall‘s head of militia at Red River Settlement (though Dennis’ position would not be openly advertised until December).

The subsequent arrest of a man named William Hallett in early December suggests that he had been released shortly after the November incident.[2]

Determining William Hallet’s identity is complicated by the fact that more than one individual of that name lived at Red River.

  • William Hallett Sr. was 58 years old in 1869 and lived along the Assiniboine, “about two and one half miles from the Fort” (Upper Fort Garry). John Stoughton Dennis is known to have visited his house.
  • Hallet’s nephew/ cousin-once-removed, William Hallett Jr., was 23 and initially lived at Portage la Prairie among Canadian farmers who had settled there, afterwards moving to Poplar Point.

Either of these William Halletts could have served as a guide to Dennis. The elder Hallett enjoyed greater renown as a leader of plains hunters, and seems to have lived in closer proximity to Dennis. William Hallet Sr. had been described in the Nor’-Wester of 27 April 1863 (when it was owned by William Coldwell and James Ross, who later became members of the Provisional Government) as:

“the veteran chieftain of a hundred battles. … one of the first men in this country; he is universally beloved and esteemed; he has extensive and powerful connections among all classes; of a mild and peaceful disposition himself, he has ever exerted himself to preserve peace and order in this country; as against the Indian tribes around us his very name is a tower of strength.”[3]

The younger William Hallett, might therefore seem the more likely to have been subjected to the indignity of being trussed to a cart to be carried away from Pembina in early November 1869.

Then again, one of the William Halletts—presumably Hallett Sr.—also had a reputation for being a strong and intimidating organizer, not averse to taking the law into his own hands. He had a proven capacity for cowing Hudson’s Bay Company officials, Sheriffs, and Governors of the Gaol by dint of assembled might on his side, and for heading up successful jailbreaks (in 1863). Binding such a man might have seemed the only way to safely deal with him.[4]

Existing secondary accounts cannot be relied on for determining which one of the two William Hallets was arrested for being a Canadian sympathizer in November, because the accounts might have combined the biographical details of both men.

The second time that a William Hallett was arrested appears to have been in the first half of December 1869, on either the 6, 7, or 14 of December [see “Q: Were there arrests on 6 December?” below]. He is said to have been held prisoner to 12 February 1870, when he was released on putting up a £450 surety on the promise of abiding peacefully by the rule of the newly formed Provisional Government and elected Legislative Assembly. This William Hallet was specifically mentioned by Louis Riel, as a prisoner whose release needed to be considered, during Day 15 of the debates of the Convention of Forty. For purely strategic reasons, incapacitating William Hallett Sr. as an oppositional leader in league with the Canadian Party would seem to have been a sensible move.

In 1873, an account of William Hallet’s incarceration related by fellow prisoner George D. McVicar (Canadian; see his entry below) was published in Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion of 1869. McVicar reported that Hallet was arrested on 6 December. McVicar described Hallet as having attempted to strangle Riel, becoming incurably insane after a “few days” of solitary confinement, and being “confined in Fort Garry until the liberation of the prisoners when he was brought back to his family a raving maniac.” McVicar’s story was apparently first published as a letter, dated 7 April 1870, in the newspaper Chatham Banner of that year, though I have not yet confirmed this. The article might have been in the issue of 21 April 1870, which apparently reported statements made by “returned refugees” McVicar and Duncan U. Campbell at an “indignation meeting.”[5]

In 1874, at the trial of Ambroise-Dydime Lépine, the description of William Hallett’s ordeal was recounted by former prisoner and member of the Canadian Party’s Volunteer Militia, Duncan U. Campbell (see his entry below). The newspaper account of Campbell’s testimony indicated that it was William Hallett Sr. who had been arrested in December. Campbell alleged that, on the orders of both Ambroise Lépine and Louis Riel, Hallett Sr. had spent 3 weeks in leg irons, essentially isolated, in a cell open to the weather (due to a broken window), and temperatures of -30°F. This treatment, Campbell theorized, had destroyed Hallet’s health and impaired his mind, leading him to commit suicide in December of 1873.

The order to isolate Hallett apparently was given on 23 January 1870, the night that Canadian Party leader, John Christian Schultz, escaped with the temperature having dropped to -35 F/ -37 C. Hallett seems to have been found guilty of causing a diversion that allowed the escape—both McVicar and Campbell claimed Hallett had gotten into a brawl in the guardroom. This might explain Hallett’s punishment of being put into the cell in which Schultz had broken out the window in effecting escape.[6]

Alexander Begg’s Journal, indicates Hallett was either no longer in isolation as of 6 February, or was getting medical attention from Dr. William Cowan, and that William Drever Jr. was in Hallett’s cell on 9 February, either as prisoner or visitor.

None of the secondary sources I consulted offered additional, corroborating documentary evidence to verify Canadian assertions made about Hallett’s identity with respect to specific incidents—though that can be said of many if not most assertions with respect to the Resistance. Often, there is only one source for a statement, and an overtly biased source at that.

There is no doubt that it was William Hallett Sr. who died in 1873, given that William Hallett Jr. had children born after that year. (Incidentally, Hallett Jr.’s wife, Mary-Ann Slater, was pregnant with their first child during the Resistance, giving birth to a son, John Hallett, on 5 May 1870.) Whether Hallett Sr.’s death was suicide or accidental, however, is not as easy to confirm.  It is hard to believe that such an experienced hunter would choose to die by gunshot to the stomach—a relatively slow and painful death. Likewise, his state of mind must remain a mystery.

Perhaps not coincidentally, William Hallett Sr.’s brother, James Hallett Sr., was judged to be insane c. 1874 according to a scrip affidavit given by his son, James Hallett Jr., raising the possibility that the brothers’ stories had been conflated to some degree.[7]

[1] Chronology: 1st Canadian Attack on Upper Fort Garry. 1869, this site, puts the cart incident at 3 November 1869; indicates he was freed some time before 22 November; and was re-arrested 7 December for having “violated his word” to remain neutral—given previously to the Comité National.

[2] See Begg, Red River Journal, 163, 184, 228; and Colin Read, “Manitoba History: The Red River Rebellion and J. S. Dennis, “Lieutenant and Conservator of the Peace,” Manitoba History 3 (1982).

[3] “Serious Disturbances,” Nor’-Wester (27 April 1863), 3.

[4] See Joseph James Hargrave, Red River (Montreal: John Lovell, 1871), 285–287. See also Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Select Committee, Report of the Select Committee on the Causes of the Difficulties in the North-West Territory in 1869–70 (Ottawa: I.B. Taylor, 1874), 13.

[5] See Allen Rnaghan, “Manitoba History: Charles Mair and the North-West Emigration Aid Society,” Manitoba History 14 (autumn 1987), n. 6; Library and Archives Canada, Newspaper Collection, lists only the 28 April 1870 issue as being in its collection.

[6] See J.M. Bumsted, Reporting the Resistance (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2003), 267.

[7] See Correspondent of the St. Paul Press, “American Account of the Affair,” Toronto Globe (23 November 1869), dispatch dated Pembina, 4 November 1869, in Glenbow Museum M-6058, Louis Riel Collection, “James Ross’ Scrapbook”; Morton, Manitoba – A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1957), 111–120, identifies Hallett as previously involved in jailbreaks connected to the trial of Rev. Griffith Owen Corbett (1863)—the date and details suggesting Hallett Sr.’s involvement, but not absolutely eliminating Hallett Jr. as the active participant. Other writers seem to have  assumed that only one of the William Halletts was imprisoned during 1869–1870 and that the same individual committed suicide in 1873. The suspected suicide of a William Hallett was reported in the Manitoban and Northwest Herald (10 January 1874), 3, but his identity was not made unequivocal. According to traditions held by his descendents, William Hallett Sr. killed himself because of infection of the wounds caused by the leg irons. That story appeared in “Sudden Death,” Manitoba Free Press (7 November 1874), 7, a report of the death of  ‘Dr.’ John C. Schultz’s father-in-law, which must be suspected of having come from Schultz. That notice in turn seems to refer back to “Lepine Case Continued,” Manitoba Free Press (24 October 1874), 2, and column 3, and the testimony of D.U. Campbell, or, perhaps to George D. McVicar’s account in Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion of 1869 (1873), 15.

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Q: When exactly was Charles Mair arrested?

On or about 2 November 1869, Charles Mair—the locally unpopular ‘Canada First’ member and an employee of Canada appointed by McDougall—apparently encountered the Red River cavalry at HBC Fort Pembina. Mair and his wife, Elizabeth ‘Eliza’ Louise McKenney (the niece of Henry McKenney and of his half-brother, John Christian Schultz), had ridden south to the U.S., purportedly for a wedding journey (they had been married 8 September 1869), and were discovered in company with William McDougall. While McDougall and entourage were banished across the American border, the Mairs were allowed to return to Red River.

Accounts of this journey home are vague. Mair later wrote that the couple rode as far as St. Norbert where they were held for either 2 or 4 days until allowed to proceed. Some accounts do not mention a stop at St. Norbert and read as though the Mairs were only required to report to Upper Fort Garry. They were then housed (or ‘imprisoned’) at the fort overnight, presumably while waiting for an interview. Mair, however, in his own account, does not mention a stay at the fort. Whatever delay(s) the couple might have experienced, any detentions appear to have been relatively brief and not likely to have been arrests so much as attempts to ascertain the Mairs’ intentions, issue warnings, and secure promises of good behaviour. The two apparently were free to return to their nearby dwelling in the Schultz’s commodious drugstore/ warehouse/ lodging place at the Town of Winnipeg (where Eliza had lived from the time of her arrival at Red River in 1868).

Some of Mair’s later writing makes much of the couple having been detained, and also of having been near to Upper Fort Garry in November 1869. In one reminiscence, through exaggeration of the November incident and conflation with a later arrest, Mair manages to fabricate support for what amounts to a boast that he had survived an imprisonment by ‘rebels’ that lasted “several months.”

The date of Mair’s later arrest is unclear. Mair implies that he was with those who surrendered at the Schultz’s on 7 December—though his name does not appear among all available lists of prisoners taken on that date. He does appear in the Woodington list, published 1913, as imprisoned in Upper Fort Garry as of 10 December 1869. One biography puts his arrest at mid December. The entry for 21 December 1869 in Begg’s Journal, mentions Mair as being imprisoned by that date, though his wife seems to be free. Whatever the case, Mair is said to have been among the 8 to 12 prisoners who escaped on 9 January 1870. He might, therefore, have been incarcerated for as much as one month and a day or two, but perhaps was jailed for a week or so less than that.

Subsequently Mair went into hiding at Portage la Prairie. He apparently participated in the march against Upper Fort Garry in mid February, fleeing the settlement after the shooting of Hugh John Sutherland and the aggravated assault on Norbert Parisien.[1]

[1] See Correspondent of the St. Paul Press, “American Account of the Affair [Pembina, 4 November 1869],” Toronto Globe (23 November 1869), in Glenbow Museum M-6058, Louis Riel Collection, “James Ross’ Scrapbook” 7; Charles Mair, ed., “Introduction,” and “Memoirs and Reminiscences,” in Tecumseh, a Drama and Canadian Poems 2d ed. (Toronto: William Briggs, 1901; reprinted with extended introduction, Toronto: Radisson Society, 1926), xx–xxi, and xxxvi, xxxviii, xxxix (page numbers to the reprinted and extended edition); Norman Shrive, Charles Mair: Literary Nationalist (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965), 90–91; Shore, “Canadians and the Métis,” 97.

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Q: Was George Young Jr. actually a prisoner in Upper Fort Garry? Or was he a disaffected HBC employee?

On 27 November, 18 year old George H. Young Jr. apparently caused a stir among the Canadians at the Town of Winnipeg. Young worked for the HBC as a clerk at Upper Fort Garry and was the son of Rev. George Young Sr., a Methodist minister newly arrived from Ontario and a follower of John C. Schultz. A story circulated that Young Jr. had escaped over the walls of the fort and had reported that HBC personnel, including Governor William Mactavish, Chief Trader Dr. William Cowan, and Accountant John Henry Mactavish were being held as prisoners “by order of Riel.” Not everyone thought the story about Young Jr.’s adventure and alarm was credible—history writer and journal-keeper Alexander Begg, for example, recorded that this “turn in affairs” was “greatly exaggerated.”

Historian N. E. Allen Ronaghan has argued that:

“Evidence suggests that this occupation [of Upper Fort Garry by Métis of Red River] was not unwelcome to Cowan or Mactavish and may, indeed, have been advised by them. Both men were related by ties of marriage to the Red River community: Mactavish through his wife, Mary Sarah, daughter of merchant Andrew McDermot, and Cowan through the Sinclairs. Both had reason to be angry with HBC shareholders in England for refusing the company’s officers a share in the £300,000 to be received for the transfer of the northwest to Canada. Like Mactavish, too, Cowan had already had a brush with the Canadian party and its leader, John Christian Schultz. And both men had reasons to be concerned about a possible attempt by the Canadian party to seize Upper Fort Garry. An occupation by this group, while technically easy and predictable, and in fact urged by some, carried with it the certainty of an outbreak of violence and damage to HBC property.”

The other reputed ‘prisoner,’ John Henry Mactavish, who was Catholic and fluent in the French language, was reported in other accounts to be sympathetic to the Métis.[1]

[1] Alexander Begg, The Creation of Manitoba 96; biographical note in Trent University Archives, 00-1000, “Clement, George Y“; N. E. Allen Ronaghan, “Cowan, William,” DCB online; Gordon Goldborough, “John Henry McTavish (1837-1888),” Memorable Manitobans, MHS online.

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Q: Were there arrests on 6 December?

In his introduction to Alexander Begg’s Journal, editor W.L. Morton states there were 48 arrests on 6 December 1869.[1] The remainder of the Journal, however, would indicate this was a typographical error and that 7 December was meant.

Writing for publication, Alexander Begg, The Creation of Manitoba (1871), alleged that three arrests took place on 6 December—although historians do not seem entirely confident that he got the details right. Begg stated that a William Hallett was arrested in company with Thomas Scott and Alexander McArthur—but Begg might have confused the latter with a brother, Peter McArthur, who was apparently arrested the next day (and, in his Journal of 1870, Begg also seems confused about the identity of Thomas Scott). It is not clear whether this is a second arrest for one of the William Halletts, or if it is a first arrest for the other William Hallett—in which case the previously incarcerated Hallett might still be in gaol.[2]

At any rate, the offence, of those named by Begg as arrested on 6 December, appears to have been that of acting as militia under Dennis.[3]

[1] Begg, Red River Journal, 84.

[2] Another Hallett—John—was also arrested (if the list on which his name appears  is accurate). By one biography, John was “the only son” of William Hallet Sr. and was arrested on 7 December [see also list below]. Only one of the Halletts was reputed to still be a prisoner at Fort Garry in February, however.

[3] Begg, Creation of Manitoba, 161; “McArthur (Macarthur), Alexander,” DCB; Henry Woodington, “Diary of A Prisoner in Red River Rebellion,” Niagara Historical Society 25 (1913); Begg, Journal 212, lists the Scott and McArthur arrests only. Begg lists Hallett as arrested on the morning of 7 December, his offence being that he “violated his word that he would not take sides.” See also George D. McVicar’s account in Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion of 1869 (1873), 15.

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Q: Who was arrested on 7 December? Why?

The bulk of the arrests occurred on 7 December. Dennis, Schultz and apparently additional parties from Portage la Prairie and Point Coupee, planned to attack Upper Fort Garry (and other points) and institute a Canadian-led provisional government, or, preferably, install William McDougall as Lieutenant-Governor of Rupert’s Land. To that end the Canadian Volunteer Militia (who signed on for 6 shillings a day), had been formed under Dennis who made Lower Fort Garry his headquarters. The Volunteers had begun to drill and to prepare uniforms. At Portage la Prairie they were organized under ‘Captain’ Webb—ostensibly at Red River as leader of a survey crew.[1]

The Canadian Volunteer Militia did not manage to muster sufficient support within the settlement to carry off an attack. According to Peter McArthur,

“The Dominion Government chief engineer, Lindsay Russell, then issued a proclamation calling on all loyal citizens to protect the government property (the pork and beans in Schultz’s store). About forty-five of us, mostly young newcomers, responded; the British flag was raised and oath of loyalty administered. The rest of the 12,000 inhabitants of Red River were not interested for a number of reasons.”[2]

The armed Canadian Volunteers ended up barricaded inside Schultz’s drugstore—an indefensible and somewhat ludicrous position. Their activity had been watched from Upper Fort Garry. ‘Fort Schultz’ was surrounded and A.G.B. Bannatyne passed a note to those inside with an order:

“to give up their arms and surrender themselves. Their lives will be spared should they comply. In case of refusal, all the English half-breeds and other natives, women and children, are at liberty to depart unmolested.”[3]

Within 15 minutes, the Canadians opted to surrender. Agnes Campbell Farquharson Schultz and Mrs. O’Donnell insisted on accompanying their husbands to the gaol. It is not clear in most accounts what arrangements Mrs. O’Donnell made for her children, nor is it certain that either of the Mairs were present, but according to one account “the ladies and children … are not regarded as prisoners, but stay in Fort Garry from choice.”[4]

[1] See Joseph Howe, letter, in Red River Insurrection. Hon. Wm. McDougall’s Conduct Reviewed (Montreal: John Lovell, 1870), 38–39; Canada, Sessional Papers vol. 5, 3d session, no. 12 (1870), 62, 64–68, 71, 77, 81–82, 90, 92-94, 107–109, 111–116, 118, 120–121; “Dr. Schultz,” New Nation (29 April 1870), 1. See also “The Volunteer Movement,” Nor’-Wester (14 February 1860), 4, for an explanation of the British origins of, and impetus for volunteer corps.

[2] Peter McArthur, “The Red River Rebellion,” Manitoba Pageant 18, 3 (Spring 1873).

[3] Begg, Creation of Manitoba, 164.

[4]Letter From Red River: Names of the Prisoners in Fort Garry [dated 18 December 1869]” Halifax NS Morning Chronicle (20 January 1870), 2.

Canadian Volunteer Militia arrested 7 December 1869

The list below was compiled by taking, as a starting point, the list attributed to Henry Woodington, “Diary of A Prisoner in Red River Rebellion.”[1] Note, however, that although Woodington’s list is dated 10 December 1869, it was not printed until 1913, and includes more individuals than are named in other lists published earlier.[2]

As additional sources are found, the list is being updated—the most recent source being “Letter From Red River: Names of the Prisoners in Fort Garry [dated 18 December 1869]” Halifax NS Morning Chronicle (20 January 1870), 2. The author of this list, however, notes that “It is incomplete, containing only 42 names, whereas, it is said,  there are more than sixty in confinement.”

[1] Henry Woodington, “Diary of A Prisoner in Red River Rebellion,” Niagara Historical Society 25 (1913), 52-53. Available online at Archive.org, http://archive.org/stream/publications25niag#page/n5/mode/2up and Niagra Historical Society, http://niagarahistorical.museum/media/No25.pdf.

[2] See, for example, Begg, Creation of Manitoba (1871), 164–165; Robert B. Hill, Manitoba: history of its early settlement, development and resources (1890), 261–262; and a list printed in Richard Donald Pietz, A Walking Miracle (2010), 255, the title of which implies that the list he cites dates to 1869. Note that Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986), includes additional lists and comments on lists.

Woodington’s ‘extra’ people are shown here in red text. People found on other lists but not included by Woodington are shown in blue.

Alexander Begg’s Journal entries indicate “six or seven” prisoners were released on 3 January 1870 “on condition that they leave the settlement in a day or two,” while a few more were released on parole. On 9 January, he indicated, anywhere from 5–12 prisoners were thought to have escaped, and 3 to have been recaptured. By 11 January, he believed that all but 2 of the escapees had been put back behind bars (which does not agree with other accounts). According to the New Nation (25 February 1870), by 15 February 24 prisoners remained in the gaol. They were those who had refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government of Assiniboia and refrain from taking up arms against the government. On 15 February they finally agreed to the terms of the oath and all prisoners were freed.

prisoners escape

Notice, New Nation (14 January 1870), 2.

m

Allen, ‘Ensign’ William John:

Canadian, of Port Hope ON. Road crew Oak Point. Tried on 19 November 1869 before the Quarterly Court of Assiniboia for an assault on his road-crew boss—found not guilty. Escaped Jan. 9; recaptured Jan. 10. Released 15 February 1870. Returned to ON. Claimed to have spent 11 months at Red River. On 21 April 1870 he applied to join the Red River Expeditionary Force—though he appears not to have become a member.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. George T. Denison, ed. [attributed], Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion of 1869 ([c.1874]), 9, 15, 22; Shore, “Canadians and the Métis,” 158 n. 23; Ronaghan, “Archibald Administration in Manitoba,” 33.

Archibald, Lewis/ Louis/ L.W./ J.W.:

Canadian, of Truro NS. Related to Adams George Archibald, who was afterwards appointed the first Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba. Arrived at Red River 1869. Possibly the ‘Correspondent, Montreal Herald‘ whose letters were printed in the Halifax NS Morning Chronicle. Released 15 February 1870? Present at Town of Winnipeg in autumn 1870. Returned to NS. Claimed 68 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Mair, “Memoirs and Reminiscences,” xxxix; Canada, Sessional Papers vol. 6, no. 19 (1872).

Ashdown, James Henry:

Originally of London, England, then various points in Ontario. A tinsmith, he arrived via Kansas at St. John’s Parish in 1868. Released 15 February 1870? Present at St. John’s, autumn 1870. Claimed 69/ 70 days imprisonment. Remained in MB.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Bubar/ Bubian/ Bootie/ Boober/ Berbar, George A.:

Canadian of NB. Road crew, Oak Point. Released 15 February 1870? (claimed 70 days imprisonment). Remained in MB (St. Francois Xavier). Afterwards went into the milling business with fellow prisoner Angus R. Chisholm. They “rented McDermott’s mill near the foot of Post Office Street,” and “ran it in a way to astonish people,” until the mill burned to the ground in December 1872. The millers relocated to 160 acres, purchased for $1000 on the Whitemud River that same year, where they built a new mill. Subsequently, George Bubar built “a sawmill, gristmill, the Lake Hotel and a general store” in the community—Totogan—which Bubar and Chisholm created in 1873 by surveying their holding into town lots.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Frank Howard Schofield, The Story of Manitoba (1913), 247; Alexander Begg and Walter R. Nursey, Ten Years in Winnipeg (1879), 38, 75; and http://www.winnipegrealestatenews.com/Resources/Article/?sysid=658.

Cameron/ Camerson, Donald ‘Don’/ Daniel ‘Dan’:

Canadian, of Ailsa Craig, Middlesex, ON. Released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days). Might have returned to ON, married, then died in 1871 (at about which time the Cameron family farm at Ailsa Craig was sold). Or, was a farmer at Headingly MB by 1909?

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Campbell, D.H./ Duncan U./ N./ A./ W.:

Canadian, of Chatham ON. D.U. Campbell testified to his arrest on 7 December 1869 at the Lépine Trial, 1874. Begg, Red River Journal, records he was released on 12 February 1870. He was given a pass so as to go in and out of the fort to visit other prisoners. Returned to ON. The Chatham Banner (21 April 1870), reported his statement as “returned refugee” at an “indignation meeting.” Claimed 65 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See “Lepine Case Continued,” Manitoba Free Press (24 October 1874), 2. Incidentally, according to the newspaper report, Campbell maintained that the ‘rebel flag’ was raised on 9 December (other accounts give the date as 10 December).

Chisholm, Angus R./ B.:

Canadian, of Alexandria/ Glengarry ON. Road crew Oak Point. Begg, Red River Journal, records he was released on 12 February 1870 (captive 68 days). Remained in MB (Winnipeg). Became a miller with Bubar [see above].

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Clyne/ Klien/ Klyne, George:

Resident of Pointe a Grouette, Pointe Coupé, Red River Settlement (of “Boisvert” according to Woodington). Paternally of Des Meurons settler descent and maternally of Métis descent, considered “French Métis.” Allegedly, on 29 November 1869, signed a document (with 94 others) refusing to recognize a provisional government.

Not listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba. Listed, however, by Morning Chronicle; W.L. Morton, ed., Alexander Begg’s Red River journal: and other papers relative to the Red River resistance of 1869-1870 (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1956), 228, but as arrested earlier; also listed in Pietz, Walking Miracle. See “Possible Objectors to a Provisional Government, 29 Nov. 1869,” this site.

Coombs/ Combs, Joseph M.:

Canadian, of London ON, from whence he had participated in putting down the Fenian Raid of 1866. Returned to ON, where he joined the Red River Expeditionary Force; acted as Private in the “Red River Provisional Battalion.”

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See  LAC RG 9 IIA5.

Davis, Matthew ‘Mat’/ ‘Matt’:

Canadian, of Durham ON. Stayed in MB at St. John’s Parish; married Christiana McKay of Red River Settlement, of Selkirk Settler descent; claimed 67 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Henry Woodington “Diary of A Prisoner,” 21; Scrip affidavit for Davis, Christiana; wife of Matthew Davis; father: Selkirk McKay, original white settler from Scotland, settled in Red River Country in 1815 =. Christiana McKay was related to Hon. William Fraser, Kildonan of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia.

Davis, William J./ A.:

Canadian, of Durham ON; remained in MB at the Town of Winnipeg; claimed 36 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Dawson, James:

Canadian, of Toronto ON (born 1844 in England); remained in MB at the Town of Winnipeg; claimed 67 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Note that this is not Simon James Dawson, although the latter was also working against the Provisional Government. In a “shadowy” project, “at the request of the [Canadian] government,” S.J. Dawson was “entrusted the duty of selecting and sending agents” to the country of  “the Saulteaux tribe of the Ojibbeway [sic] Indians … between Lake Superior and Red River” during “the winter of 1869-70 when rebellion was rife.” See LAC, “Headquarters – Account by Simon J. Dawson of his Involvement with the Wolsely Expedition of 1869 and an Account for $1000 …,” pp. 5-6, 25-27.

Develin/ Devlin, James:

Canadian of Durham ON; remained in MB at the Town of Winnipeg; claimed 69 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed, however, in Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Eccles, John:

Uncertain ID: might be Canadian of St. Thomas ON; identified himself as “white”; but was also identified as Métis in the Archibald census, born at Red River. Resident of Red River from at least 1862 and married into a Métis family. Claimed 44 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. John Eccles “white” and Métis, lived at St. John’s Parish, then moved to St. Norbert. Scrip affidavit for Eccles, Jane Mary; wife of John Eccles; born: April 11, 1839; father: Thomas Logan (Métis); mother: Mary Ann Dease (Métis); claim no.: 1816; date of issue: September 20, 1876 =; and Scrip affidavit for Eccles, Mary Ann Elizabeth; born: 26 December 1862; father: John Eccles; mother: Margaret McDonald =.

Ferguson, John:

Canadian of Smith’s Falls ON, or Kingston ON. Arrived at the settlement August or September 1869. Released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment). Remained in MB (High Bluff).

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See “Red River,” Toronto Globe (15 October 1869), 2. Note the possibility of confusion of identities exists: by 1838, a John Ferguson was married to Monique Hamelin, living at Pembina. Their daughter apparently married a Pierre Parenteau and lived at St. Norbert in 1870. See Hon. Pierre Parenteau, St. Norbert.

Fonseca, H. Gomez/ W.G.: 

Listed only by Morning Chronicle, but described there as “liberated”

Fortney/ Fortinay/ Fonteney/ Fortinvery, George Francis:

Described as “of Texas U.S.” by Woodington, and as born in Upper Canada in another source, apparently Fortinay was actually born 30 August 1846 at St. Joseph, Michigan. He arrived at Red River as a member of the Canadian road crew at Oak Point. Along with Thomas Scott, he threatened his boss, John Snow, “with physical violence at Oak Point in October 1869, for which he was fined at the November General Quarterly Court.” Released 15 February 1870? (claimed 71 days imprisonment). Remained in MB (St. Charles).

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Franklin, Thomas:

In some accounts assumed to be from Canada, but listed as a “pensioner” in the Morning Chronicle article and Henry Woodington’s diary, which suggests he was among the Chelsea Pensioners brought over from England in 1848, who settled at Red River on lots near Upper Fort Garry and the Town of Winnipeg. Alexander Begg’s Red River Journal records that Franklin was released on 12 February 1870. He claimed 66 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Garrett, Charles:

Canadian, resident of Winnipeg; liquor distiller, operator of Garrett House, a saloon/ boarding house; described by Alexander Begg, Ten Years in Early Winnipeg (1879), 13, as “hotel-keeper, lawyer, doctor, stump orator and goodness knows what else,” who “made himself notorious.” Perhaps arrested later.

Listed in Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Not listed among the 7 December prisoners by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner” — but listed as arrested later, see Garrett’s entry in the next list below).

Graham, Allen Wilson:

Canadian of Alborough ON. Arrived from Elgin County ON with his father and brother. Proceeded to stake a 1600 acre claim with brother William Graham at Rat Creek, High Bluff, on unceded First Nations land. Released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days). Decided to return to ON.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Archives of Manitoba, MG 9 A74 B8 no. 14. Archives of Manitoba, MG3 B10, Andrew Wilson Graham, 1 file (Typewritten transcription of ‘diary’) Dec 3; Dec. 7; Dec 11; Dec. 25Jan. 1; Jan. 6; Jan. 7; Jan. 10; Jan. 12; Jan. 19; Jan. 20; Jan. 22; Jan. 24; Feb. 12; Feb. 15; Feb. 18. The text is not actually a diary, as it remarks on events that take place after the date on which the entry is made.

Graham, William:

Canadian of Allanburg ON. Arrived from Elgin County ON with his father and brother. Proceeded to stake a 1600 acre claim with brother Allen Graham at Rat Creek, High Bluff, on unceded First Nations land. Conveyed report (c. 2 November 1869) to Canadians at Portage la Prairie that ‘Catholics’ had taken Upper Fort Garry and stopped the mails; that Schultz had been told to leave the country (he was still an unrepentant jail-breaker at large); and that all Canadians would be expelled. After his release decided to return to Ontario. Claimed 65 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Archives of Manitoba, MG 9 A74 B8 no. 14.

Hallett, John:

Métis. Described as the son of William Hallett Sr. of Red River Settlement, in which case John was born 1 January 1851, St. Andrews; but this might be John Hallet, born 1831, St. John’s Parish. According to Woodington’s account, the son named John Hallett was free prior to 9 January 1870. Claimed 17 days imprisonment.

Not listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba. Listed by Morning Chronicle; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” 31; Scrip affidavit for Hallett, John; born: 1 January 1851; father: William Hallett (Métis); mother: Maria Hallett (Métis); affidavit no: 1809; claim no: 1643; scrip no: 10550; date of issue: 20 September 1876; amount: $160 =.

Hallett, William:

Métis of Red River Settlement. See discussion above. While some accounts, such as Begg, Creation of Manitoba, have Hallett arrested on 6 December 1869, Woodington maintains he was arrested on the 7th. Claimed 73 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed by Morning Chronicle; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Hames/ Haines, J.B./ A./ John H.:

Road crew Oak Point. Returned to ON. Claimed 34 days imprisonment.

Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Not listed by Morning Chronicle; nor among 7 December prisoners by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Hamilton, Arthur/ [C.M./ Colin?]:

Arthur Hamilton testified in April 1870, before a Select Committee of the Canadian Senate, that he was arrested on 7 December at Schultz’s store and left the settlement the day he was released. Alexander Begg’s Journal, p. 221, and 252, mentions his release had taken place by 5 January 1870 and that he departed the settlement the next day.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Not listed among 7 December prisoners by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” J.J. Hargrave also mentioned Arthur Hamilton as a prisoner. Might be confused with Colin Hamilton (Alexander Begg’s brother-in-law).

Harris, James/ John B.:

Canadian of Stratford ON. Road crew Oak Point. After the Red River Expeditionary Force arrived in August 1870, he “drew water for the troops from October 28th to December 1, 1870.”

Not listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed in Begg’s Journal, 228, as believed arrested, but unconfirmed. Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” Shore, “Canadians and the Métis,” 168.

Hymon/ Hyman, Walter F.:

Canadian of London ON, who “had been spying on Métis activities around St. Norbert for some time … told the Métis family he was boarding with that ‘a number of Canadians had brought military uniforms with them and that he had one himself.’” Escaped 9 January 1870, but froze his feet and was recaptured, perhaps the next day. Released 15 January? (claimed 42 days imprisonment). Returned to ON. Claimed 42 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Ronaghan, “Archibald Administration in Manitoba,” 55. [L’Abbé] G[eorge] Dugas, Histoire véridique des faits qui ont préparé le mouvement des métis à la Rivière-Rouge en 1869 (Montreal: Librairie Beauchemin, 1905), 54, reports Hyman spied for John C. Schultz.

Ivy, John:

of Texas, U.S., or a Canadian, farming at St. James. Escaped 9 January 1870 (captive 34 days). Afterwards, apparently was among the 48 “Portage Party” men arrested after the 16 February 1870 killing of Hugh John Sutherland and the aggravated assault on Norbert Parisien. Claimed 35 days imprisonment. Returned to ON.

Not listed by Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Kent, James C.:

No details known.

Listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Not listed by Morning Chronicle; nor by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Kitson/ Kittson, William:

Canadian of Howard ON. Initially with his family at Headingly. Escaped 9 January 1870. Claimed 37 days imprisonment. Remained in MB, settling east of Rat Creek, near Portage la Prairie.  (claimed 37 days imprisonment).

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See “Rural Schools: Portage la Prairie School Division #24,” pdf.

Langman/ Lanaman/ Limgerard?, Thomas:

Canadian of Barrie ON. Begg, Red River Journal, records that he was released on 12 February 1870 (captive 37 days). Might have returned to Ontario (if he is the Thomas Langman who died there in 1901 — see Langman, Thomas (Death notice).

Not listed by Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” 43; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Ronaghan, “Archibald Administration in Manitoba,” shows J.S. Lynch to have listed Thomas ‘Limgerard,’ but not Langman.

Lusted, Thomas:

Canadian of Windsor ON. Originally of Kent County, England. Although he appears in lists of prisoners, by his own account he was able to sneak away on 7 December and had left the settlement by 17 December 1869. There was also a rumour that he escaped and was well on his way to Ottawa by 29 December 1869. Nevertheless, by some accounts, apparently he was released in February 1870 and only then returned to Ontario. He arrived back at Red River “later that year,” and subsequently “actively sought revenge for past mistreatment by persecuting the Métis.”

Not listed by Morning Chronicle. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” 43; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See his account in Denison, Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion, 21-23, 36.

Lynch, Dr. James Spencer/ Joseph:

Canadian, in some accounts described as of Montreal QC., but born near London ON. He arrived at the Settlement in June 1869 and staked a 600 acre claim on the shore of Lake Manitoba near the mouth of the White-mud River. He was fervently anti-Catholic, and reported to be the last prisoner released in February 1870. Released 15 February 1870 after giving oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government. He acted as paymaster of the Canadian Volunteer Militia until he left the settlement for Ontario in last half of February or the first days of March. In April 1870 he participated in rallies protesting the ‘murder’ of Thomas Scott, and “testified that month before a Senate committee on affairs at Red River” (at which time he said he was arrested on 6 December, had been imprisoned for “almost three months,” and left the settlement before the execution of Scott). Claimed 68 days imprisonment. Lynch afterwards returned to Manitoba, where he was active in politics.

Listed in Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” 43; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See also “The Canadian Party Attack on Assiniboia,” this site.

McArthur, Peter:

Canadian of Toronto ON, but born in Scotland. Road crew Oak Point. Escaped 9 January; recaptured 10 January 1870; and “finally released early in March,” (or 20 February?) then left the Settlement for Ottawa ON. Claimed 75 days imprisonment. Returned to settle in MB.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Anonymous ed., Agnes McArthur, Charles McArthur eds., and Peter McArthur, “The Red River Rebellion,” Manitoba Pageant 18, no. 3 (Spring 1873).

McVicar, George Duncan:

Canadian described as of Chatham ON, but born Almont, Michigan, 1846. Characterized “The French half-breeds” as “the most ignorant, degraded and indolent class of people you can picture to yourself,” adding that they were, “an important element in the population here [Assiniboia]. They are led and encouraged by villain catholic Priests and scheming traders not much better than themselves.” Escaped out window 9 January 1870. Left the settlement after 18 February 1870 for Ontario. Claimed 30 days imprisonment. Returned later in the year to settle in Manitoba.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Denison, Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion, 11; and AM MG 3 B9.] H4.

Mair, Charles:

Canadian of Perth On. See discussion above. Purportedly, on 9 January he escaped along with 11 others—Mair in company with Thomas Scott and W.F. Hymon. The latter was recaptured with badly frozen feet, while the other two made it to Portage la Prairie. Notably, according to Woodington’s “Diary of a Prisoner,” 48 – 49, Scott did not travel with Mair—as other accounts maintain—but with Woodington and Parker. Mair left the settlement c. 18 February for Ontario.

Not listed among the 7 December prisoners by Begg, Creation of Manitoba (although he does assume he was imprisoned in his Journal, p. 221, and lists him as arrested p. 228); only “Mrs. Mair” is listed Hill. Listed by Morning Chronicle, voluntarily accompanied by his wife; also by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Mair, Mrs./  Elizabeth ‘Eliza’ Louise McKenney:

Canadian.

Listed by Morning Chronicle—though not as a prisoner, only as allowed to stay with her husband in Fort Garry; listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Her ‘arrest’ only makes sense if her husband was arrested, since accounts in which she is mentioned assert that she chose to accompany him to gaol. Not listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Manan, Francis J.:

Canadian of Guelph ON. No other details known.

Not listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Meade, Rollen/ Rolland/ Roland/ Rollin P./ Rawlin Price:

Canadian of Woodhouse, Norfolk County, ON, but had been born in Vermont, U.S.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Not listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” (who instead puts him among those arrested later, see following list below). See also “The ‘Canadian Party’ Attack on Assiniboia,” this site.

Mercer, F.C.:

Canadian of Caledonia ON.

Not listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba; listed in Begg’s Journal p. 228 as arrested later (see below). Listed by Morning Chronicle; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Millar/ Miller, ‘Lieutenant’ Charles/ George:

Canadian of Shefford QC, or British Columbia. Escaped Jan. 9; recaptured Jan. 10. Released 15 February 1870 after giving oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government. Claimed 66 days imprisonment. Remained in MB (St. Charles).

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” See Denison, Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion, 22; Mair, “Memoirs and Reminiscences,” xxxix. Note: In October 1870 a William Miller was appointed by Canadian Lieutenant Governor Adams George Archibald to the police force.

Morney/ Mooney, John:

Canadian of Mosock ON. Claimed 70 days imprisonment. Remained in MB (Portage).

Not listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Mugridge/ Mogridge, Francis/ F.G./ F.C./ T.C.:

Canadian. Previously tried on 19 November 1869 before the Quarterly Court of Assiniboia for an assault on his road-crew boss — found not guilty.

Listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; and subsequently by Alexander Begg, History of the North-West vol. 1 (1894), 415; Frank Howard Schofield, The Story of Manitoba (1913), 247; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Not listed by Morning Chronicle; nor Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Mulkins, Stewart:

Canadian of Kingston ON. A nephew of Col. J.S. Dennis. Road crew Oak Point. Begg’s Journal, 252, reports that he had been freed as of 5 January 1870 and was leaving the settlement.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Not listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; but mentioned in Begg’s  Red River journal, 228, as arrested earlier. Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Shore, “Canadians and the Métis,” 62, citing LAC, Macdonald Papers, Volume 187-188, A.G. Archibald to J.A. Macdonald, December 13, 1871; and J.S. Dennis, quoted in, Canada, Parliament, Correspondence and papers connected with recent occurrences in the Northwest (Ottawa: 1870), 112-113.

Mulligan, James:

Of Butts, Ireland. “served in various regiments in India, England, in Ireland and Scotland, from the age of eighteen years”; “Late of Her Majesty’s 17th Foot.” Arrived at the Red River Settlement in 1848 with the Chelsea Pensioners. A constable at Red River in 1869. John C. Schultz described events leading up to his arrest in a speech in the House Commons in April 1871. Begg, Red River Journal, records Mulligan was released on 12 February 1870. Mulligan, however, claimed “imprisonment for three months.” On release, he fled to Pembina. After the RREF arrival, Mulligan returned, then was indignant that he was not hired as a constable, and blamed this on A.-A. Taché and “the crafty and unscrupulous Hudson [sic] Bay Company.” Mulligan was also reputedly “ill-treated by the Ontario volunteers of the Wolseley Expedition.” On 23 September 1870, “Soldiers paraded the hapless Constable James Mulligan through the village bound to a cart and then incarcerated him in his own jail.”

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See James Mulligan, letter to William McDougall (1 October 1870), “Appendix E,” The Red River Rebellion. Eight Letters to Hon. Joseph Howe, Secretary of State for the Provinces, etc., In Reply to an Official Pamphlet, ed. William McDougall (Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Company, 1870), 66-68; Denison, Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion, 41; Bruce Cherney, “Metis land claim in court — scrip snapped up by 1870s speculators.”

Murray, Alexander ‘Alex’:

Canadian of Dickinson Landing ON. Begg’s, Red River Journal, records he was released on 12 February 1870. Claimed 30 days imprisonment. Remained in MB.

He has been identified as being “on-hand during the confinement of Parisien” by the Portage Party on 16 February 1870, along with another of their prisoners, “named John McKinny.” Later, Murray apparently testified that, “We were discontented with our leaders at Kildonan.”

Not listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba. Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See Bruce Cherney, “Execution of Thomas Scott — used by Riel’s enemies to tarnish his achievements in Manitoba.” Historian J.M. Bumsted avers that there were two Alexander Murrays at Red River: the one, born in 1839 at the Settlement, arrested on 7 December 1869; the other, born 1840 and from Upper Canada, arrested on 17 February 1870. There was, however, another Canadian named Alexander Murray — at Portage la Prairie, born 1828, who seems a more likely candidate for both arrests.

Nicholson/ Nicol, George:

Canadian of Ottawa ON. Released 15 February 1870? (claimed 69 days imprisonment), Returned to ON? Claimed 69 days imprisonment. Returned to MB by October and was appointed by Canadian Lieutenant Governor Adams George Archibald to the police force.

Not listed by Morning Chronicle. Listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Nimmons/ Nimons/ Nemiums/ Nummins, William:

Described as of Elora ON by Woodington, but born in England in 1826, and migrated to Guelph ON, at age 47. He was rumoured to have escaped out a window of the courthouse on 2 January 1870. He remained in the North-West, eventually ranching in Alberta.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See http://www2.calgarypubliclibrary.com/calgary/hshh/res62.htm.

O’Donnell/ O’Connell, Dr. John Harrison:

Canadian described as of Montreal QC, but born in Simcoe, Upper Canada, in 1838. Arrived at Red River 3 November 1869 intent on working with ‘Dr’ John Christian Schultz. Reportedly voluntarily accompanied by his wife and 2 children, O’Donnell spent 10 weeks incarcerated at Upper Fort Garry. Begg, Red River Journal, records he was released on 12 February 1870. After the creation of Manitoba, “as a justice of the peace, he signed the arrest warrant for Louis Riel and Ambroise Lépine in 1873, by which the latter was brought to trial for the murder of Thomas Scott.”

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

O’Donnell, Mrs./ Hannah Routledge:

Canadian.

Not listed by Morning Chronicle as a prisoner, but as voluntarily accompanying her husband, with their 2 children; not listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; nor Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” Listed by Hill, Manitoba.

Palmer, Charles E./ E.E.:

Canadian of London, England. Released 15 February 1870? (captive 70 days). Returned to ON.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Robb, James/ Charles:

Listed as an American, who apparently escaped—perhaps on 1 January 1870.

Not listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Hill, Manitoba. Listed in Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” 46; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Schultz, ‘Dr.’ John Christian:

Of Amherstburg ON, previously incarcerated for non-payment of debts at Red River, considered a fugitive-left-at-large by the HBC Council of Assiniboia after a jail-break. Determined Canadian Party agitator. Broke out again 23 January 1870 after this arrest. Leader of the Canadian Party in Winnipeg; with the Portage Party at Kildonan mid-February. After the death of Sutherland (on whom Schultz performed surgery), he left the settlement c. 18 February for Ontario. Testified he left to “save my life.”

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See also “The ‘Canadian Party’ Attack on Assiniboia,” this site.

Schultz, Mrs./ Agnes Campbell Farquharson:

Not listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; and Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” Listed by Morning Chronicle, as accompanying her husband, though not as a prisoner; listed by Hill, Manitoba.

Scott, Thomas W.:

Canadian of Toronto ON, but born “c.1842, probably at Clandeboye, County Down (Northern Ireland).” Previously charged with assaulting his road-crew boss. Begg’s Journal has him arrested earlier (6 December). Escaped out window on 9 January 1870. Rearrested on 18 February. Executed 4 March.

Listed as arrested 6 December by Begg, Creation of Manitoba.; likewise by Hill, Manitoba; Morton, ed., Alexander Begg’s Red River journal, 228. Listed by Morning Chronicle; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Smith, Russel/ Robert R./ B.:

Of Winchester, England, and Canada. Released 15 February 1870 after giving oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government. Claimed 71 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Spice, William:

Canadian of Fullerton ON. Claimed 31 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Stewart/ Stuart, James:

Canadian of Windsor ON, or, according to W.L. Morton, an “Orkney man, formerly in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company.” Schoolmaster in St. James Parish. Previously involved in the Rev. Griffith Owen Corbett jailbreaks of 1863—including the freeing of Stewart himself.  Begg‘s Red River Journal, records he was released on 12 February 1870. Claimed 66 days imprisonment. Stewart was perhaps related by marriage to Hon. William Fraser, Kildonan.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. See W.L. Morton, Manitoba – A History (Toronto: University Press, 1957), 111 – 120; Scrip affidavit for Stewart, Robina; born: 1834; husband: James Stewart; father: Robert McKay, original white settler from Scotland, entered Red River country in 1815; mother: Christiana McKay (born Bannerman); children: Robert Wm., born: Oct. 11, 1857; James Charles, born: July 28, 1859; Alexander Selkirk, born: Oct. 20, 1861 =.

Stocks/ Stokes/ Storkes, Joseph H.:

Canadian of Stratford ON. Claimed 69 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Stodger/ Stodgill/ Stodgall/ Stogaell/ Stodzeal, Charles:

Of England. Described in the Morning Chronicle article as a Chelsea Pensioner. Begg’s Journal, 228, reports he was released on 12 February 1870. Claimed 70 days imprisonment.

Not listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba. Listed by Morning Chronicle; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and, Pietz, Walking Miracle. See also Scrip affidavit for his wife: Ann Hallett; born: 16 December 1850; father: Charles Stodgill (English); mother: Margaret Bourke (Métis); claim no: 1643; scrip no: 10549; affidavit no: 1808; date of issue: 20 September 1876; amount: $160 =.

Woodington/ Woddington, Henry:

Canadian of Brampton ON.  Escaped out window 9 January 1870. Travelled with Thomas Scott and Parker to Portage la Prairie. Was rearrested on 18 February after the death of Hugh Sutherland and the aggravated assault on Norbert Parisien. Claimed 65 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle. Author of “Diary of A Prisoner in Red River Rebellion,” Niagara Historical Society 25 (1913).

Wright, Archibald Francis:

Canadian of Paisley ON. Travelled to the U.S., were he worked as a harness-maker for the Confederates in the Civil War. From California went north, following reports of gold. Arrived at Red River in 1869. On 11 November 1869, married Mary Ramsay in  the Red River Hall, Town of Winnipeg. He might have been arrested later than 7 December 1869. Begg’s Journal, records Wright was released on 12 February 1870. Claimed 65 days imprisonment.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Wrightman/ Weightman/ Werghtman, Hugh:

Canadian of Barrie ON. Begg’s Journal, records he was released on 12 February 1870. Claimed 77 days imprisonment.

Not listed by Morning Chronicle. Listed by Begg, Creation of Manitoba; Hill, Manitoba; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner”; and Pietz, Walking Miracle.

Additional Canadians described as arrested shortly afterward:

Unless otherwise indicated, the following prisoners were freed as of 15 February 1870.

Brandn/ Brandon, George:

of Belgrave, England. Declined to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government, opting instead to agree to leave the country, and was was realeased on 4 January 1870.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg’s Journal, 228; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.” Also listed by Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

Garret, Charles:

Canadian, originally from the Toronto and Lake Simcoe area. Garrett lived at Red River “for upwards of eleven years” prior to 1870. He farmed 25 acres at Sturgeon Creek for eight years, running a distillery at the same location. The liquor was served at his hotel in the Town of Winnipeg. He reputedly stole a copy of Gov. Mactavish’s proclamation from William Coldwell—as it was being typeset for printing—to give to rival newspaperman, John Christian Schultz. Begg, Red River Journal, records Garrett was released on 12 February 1870. In April 1870, Garrett testified to being held prisoner at Upper Fort Garry for 70 days (other sources put his incarceration at 66 days), after which he was given a pass to leave the country—which he did, though his intention was to return.

See Garrett’s account in Reminiscences of the Red River Rebellion of 1869 (1873), 24; Charles Garrett, evidence, “Report on the Select Committee of the Senate on the Subject of Rupert’s Land, Red River, and North-West Territory, together with Minutes of Evidence” (Ottawa, 1870), 32-35; and see also Alexander Begg, Creation of Manitoba (1871), 70.

Hall/ Hill, Andrew/ G.A./ George Andrew:

Canadian of Dunn, Halimand Township, ON. Born 1847 to Rev’d James Hill and an unidentified woman. Reportedly declined to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government, opting instead to agree to leave the country, and was was released on 4 January 1870.

Listed in Begg’s Journal, 228, as believed arrested, but unconfirmed, by 15 February, Begg is under the impression that Hill had never been imprisoned (and the Archibald Census of 1870 listed him as still at Portage la Prairie after the Resistance); listed in Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; and Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

Hamilton, Arthur H.:

Canadian of Ottawa. Upon his release, on 6 January 1870, he left the Settlement for Ontario. Possibly related to Katherine Jane Glen Macaulay Rae Hamilton Begg, the wife of chronicler Alexander Begg.

Heath, Charles:

West-Indian, born 1850 to George Heath.

Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; and Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

Holland, Robert:

Canadian of Tudor, Hastings County, ON. Declined to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government, opting instead to agree to leave the country, and was released on 4 January 1870. Decided to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government on 6 January 1870.

Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; and Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

Jeffrey/ Deffrey, James:

Canadian of Middleton ON. Gave oath of Allegiance to the Provisional Government on 4 January 1870 and released.

Listed in Begg’s Journal, 228; listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; and Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

Lattmore/ Latimore/Latterman/ Latimer, John:

Canadian of Arran, Bruce County, ON. He declined to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government, opting instead to agree to leave the country, and was released on 4 January 1870.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Begg’s Journal, 228; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; and Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

McLeod, John:

of Stornoway, Island of Lewis, Scotland. Gave oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government on 4 January 1870 and was released.

Listed in Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner.”

Meade, Rollen/ Rolland/ Rawlin Price:

Canadian of Woodhouse, Norfolk County, ON, but born in Vermont, U.S. He migrated to the North-West in 1866 as an HBC employee, then to Red River, where he married Mary Rachel Ashford, daughter of James Ashford, a Chelsea Pensioner. He  was secretary pro tem of the Red River Famine Relief committee in 1868-1869 (which came under criticism for not distributing monies allegedly received from Ontario). Woodington described Meade as an editor of the Nor’-Wester newspaper in late 1869, and also stated “Meade came in with the mails but was not permitted to leave” on 6 December (where he was detained and by whom is not clear), then lists him among men from Point du Chien arrested some time after the surrender of 7 December. By some accounts, Meade is credited with sketching the execution Thomas Scott, though by that time he had been released and had moved with his wife and son to Fort Alexander.

See http://www.meadequesnel.ca/meade_home_page.htm

Mercer, F.C.:

Canadian of Caledonia ON. Gave oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government on 4 January 1870 and was released. remained in MB (St. Paul’s).

Listed in Begg’s Journal 228

Otwell/ Otterwell, Philip:

Canadian of Owen Sound ON. Declined to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government, opting instead to agree to leave the country, and was released on 4 January 1870. Decided to give oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government on 6 January 1870.

Listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner“; also Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

Parker, George:

Canadian of Lanark, ON. Reportedly arrested 9 December. Escaped out window 9 January 1870.

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” and Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256. Apparently rearrested with the Portage Party on 18 February [see below].

Q: Were there other Canadian Party Sympathizers who were arrested?

According to Alexander Begg, there were numerous other arrests rumoured to have taken place (including those of Jos. Sabiston and W.G. Fonseca; Bannatyne and McDermott;[1] and William Drever Jr. and Burnell). At times in Begg’s Journal it seems that he took any visit to Upper Fort Garry to be an arrest. Because on 9 February, Day 14 of the Convention of Forty, Riel announced the release of “Mr. Bannatyne, Dr. Cowan and Mr. Mactavish from all confinement,” it is reasonable to assume that rumours of their imprisonment had some basis in fact. Many of the imprisonments Begg alleged, however, cannot be confirmed as having actually happened, because the record base for the Provisional Government is thin. Two examples of presumed arrests, because mentioned in sources other than Begg, are given below (though the sources might well have relied on Begg).

Note: Unless otherwise indicated, these prisoners were freed as of 15 February 1870.

[1] For confirmation of Bannatyne’s alleged arrest, Begg might have been relying on The New Nation (11 February 1870), which carried a facetious mention of Bannatyne having spent several days at Upper Fort Garry. Given that Bannatyne was politically active, was the Settlement Postmaster, and would become a formal member of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia and the Legislative Assembly, he might well have had business, plans, and strategy to discuss at Upper Fort Garry (including passing on rumours about and observations on, Canadian Party activity).

Gaddee/ Gaddy/ Gaudy, William/ H.:

Métis, buffalo hunter of Red River, with a home base at Portage la Prairie. By about 15 February, a rumour circulated that Gaddy was a prisoner at Upper Fort Garry, having been arrested at the home of William Dease. By the next day the rumour had expanded to his having been “murdered in his cell,” for having letters on his person detailing the Portage Party/ Canadian Party plan to attack the fort and “murder” all inside.[1] There is, however, no hard evidence that Gaddy was in fact a prisoner: Begg’s Journal has him arrested and released on the same day—14 February, and it it known that he was not murdered or executed. Commissioner from Canada, Donald A. Smith, alledged that Gaddy had escaped after a seemingly longer incarceration. There is speculation (on the part of historians) that he might have been banished from the Settlement (although he was listed in the Archibald Census of 1870 at Portage la Prairie). It is possible, however, that Gaddy was not at the Settlement at the time of his alleged arrest at all, but out on the plains with his family, engaged in the winter hunt. He eventually settled at Red Deer Hill, Lindsay [SK].

[1] Alexander Begg, Red River Journal, 306, 312–313, 316, 317, recorded the rumours. “News from Red River. The Reported Execution of Gaudy. Murder by a Half-Breed. Dr. Schultz’s Expedition.” The Globe vol. 27, no. 58 (9 March 1870), printed the rumour, identifying Gaddy as both “H. Gaudy” and Wm Gaudy.” Several biographies assume the rumours were true.

La Rose/ Larose, Frank/ Francois:

originally of Joliette, Quebec, but settled at Pembina U.S. He rented a house (as did Michael Hayden) to William McDougall at Pembina. On 15 December 1869, Alexander Begg, Red River Journal, 228, listed Larose as having been arrested sometime before 7 December. Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” does not mention him. Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986), states that LaRose escaped on 7 January. Although there are references with allegations, there is no hard evidence that LaRose was a prisoner at Upper Fort Garry (because there is no official list of prisoners).

Listed by Morning Chronicle; Pietz, A Walking Miracle, 256.

 

Q: Who were the 48 arrested after the 16 February 1870 killing of Hugh John Sutherland and the aggravated assault on Norbert Parisien?

See Shore, “Canadians and the Métis,” 43 – 44; and New Nation (25 February 1870), page 2 column 4, http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/02/25/2/Ar00203.html/Olive; and Begg, Creation of Manitoba, 289 – 290. According prisoner to W.A. Farmer, the men were marched into the courtyard of Upper Fort Garry, then imprisoned in the “upper part” of the “Hudson’s Bay Office,” which had several separate rooms. [http://books.google.ca/books?id=nrANAAAAQAAJ&dq=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&pg=PA39#v=onepage&q=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&f=false]

From Portage la Prairie

Bartlett, Wilder/ Wildon:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie. [Listed in Begg’s Journal, 228, as believed, but not confirmed, to have been arrested earlier in December 1869.]

Bird, William G.:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie. Listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba

Boulton, Capt. Charles Arkoll:

Canadian at Portage la Prairie. Second in command to Dennis (who by this time was long gone from the settlement). He testified to being imprisoned “for about a month,” and described his treatment — including during the time he understood he was sentenced to be shot. [See Parliamentary Papers 320].

Farmer, W./ W.A.:

Canadian, of Cobourg ON. Arrived at the settlement about August or September, 1869. farming at Portage la Prairie. Testified that he was imprisoned for 1 month.[See “Red River,” Toronto Globe (15 October 1869), 2; and http://books.google.ca/books?id=nrANAAAAQAAJ&dq=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&pg=PA39#v=onepage&q=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&f=false]

McBain, James:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

McBain, Robert:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

McDonald, Charles:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

McLean, Alexander:

Son of John McLean. Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

McLean, John:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie, had previously taken an oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government. [See also Nor’-Wester (30 August 1862), about his arrival; and New Nation (11 March 1870), http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/03/11/2/Ar00210.html/Olive, which states that Mrs. McLean, while on her death bed, had forwarded a  request to President Riel and Adjutant-General Lepine, for the release of her husband and son from the Fort Garry gaol. The two prisoners were immediately issued passes for Portage — for which the family expressed its gratitude.]

McPherson, Alexander:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie. Testified at the Lepine trial 1874 that he was in custody for 3 weeks [http://books.google.ca/books?id=nrANAAAAQAAJ&dq=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&pg=PA42#v=onepage&q=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&f=false]

Murray, Alexander ‘Alex’:

of Dickinson Landing ON, farming at Portage la Prairie. His 2d arrest.

Sissons/ Lissons, Daniel:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

Smith, Lawrence:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

Switzer/ Swinzer, John:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

Williams, H.:

Canadian, farming at Portage la Prairie.

Woodington, Henry:

See entry above. Not listed as arrested with this group by the New Nation, but listed by Woodington, “Diary of a Prisoner,” 51. [Not listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba.]

From High Bluff

Adams, Robert:

Métis, farming at High Bluff.

Dillworth, J.:

Canadian, farming at High Bluff.

Dillworth, William:

Canadian, farming at High Bluff.

Jock/ Joy, James:

Canadian, farming at High Bluff. [see Robert B. Hill, History of Manitoba, 286]

McDonald, Archibald:

among “new arrivals,” farming at High Bluff, perhaps the father of Ewen Macdonald (MacDonald, Ewen; claim scrip for his children who are not of age; address: Lesser Slave Lake; born: 14 August, 1839 at Wernesshire, Scotland; father: Archibald MacDonald (Whiteman); mother: Mary Grieve (Whitewoman); married: 19 October, 1865 at Lower Fort Garry to Eliza Murray (Métis); children living: Alexander Archibald, Samuel Lawrence Benson; Mary Helen, Elizabeth Gertrude; Robert Campbell, Colin Hunter; Annie Catherine and Kenneth Norman; children deceased: Walter Ewen and William Clark; claim no. 558). An Archibald MacDonald Jr. (1836-1915) was employed by the HBC  from 1854 to 1911, but  he was clerk in charge at Fort Qu’Appelle  in 1869 – 1870.

McLeod, Murdoch:

Canadian, farming at High Bluff.

Paquin, J./ Paquin dit Pocha, John ‘Johnny’:

Métis, among “new arrivals,” farming at High Bluff. Born 1835 at High Bluff to Joseph Paquin dit Pocha/ Botquin Sr. (of Lower Canada?) and Josephte Descoleaux (Métis).

Paquin/Paquin  dit Pocha, Joseph Jr.:

Métis, among “new arrivals,” farming at High Bluff. Born c. 1833 at High Bluff, brother of Johnny Paquin above. Married to Matilda Hodgson (Métis).

Paquin/ Paquin dit Pocha, William ‘Billy’:

Métis, among “new arrivals,” farming at High Bluff (since his marriage in 1865). Born 30 December 1842 at St. Andrews, brother of Johnny and Joseph Jr. Paquin above. Married to Maria Anderson.

Sandison/ Sanderson, George William:

among “new arrivals,” farming at High Bluff. [A George Sandison was among the Selkirk Settlers of 1818. See http://www.mhs.mb.ca/info/selkirk/bibliography.shtml citing The Selkirk Settlers of Red River and Their Descendants 1812-1997 (The Lord Selkirk Association of Rupert’s Land, 1997). However, based on a Irene M. Spry, ed., “The ‘Memories’ of George William Sanderson,” Canadian Ethnic Studies 17 (1985); pages 115 – 134, this appears to be a 24 year old Métis, originally a member of the Portage community. Not listed in Begg, Creation of Manitoba.]

Sanderson, James Francis:

among “new arrivals,” farming at High Bluff, he was Métis, 22 years old, and a younger brother of George William Sanderson. Reportedly, he was confined for one month.

Scott, Thomas:

apparently arrested for the 3d time; fugitive, having escaped from gaol on 7 January; in hiding at High Bluff.

From Poplar Point

Newcomb/ Newcombe, George:

Canadian, farming at Poplar Point. Identified by Col. J.S. Dennis a cadet from a military school in Canada. Testified in the Lepine trial 1874 that he was confined 32 days. [Shore 43; Parliamentary papers 320; http://books.google.ca/books?id=nrANAAAAQAAJ&dq=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&pg=PA41#v=onepage&q=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&f=false.]

Taylor, A./ H.:

Canadian, farming at Poplar Point. Listed as ‘H. Taylor’ in Begg, Creation of Manitoba.

Taylor, D.:

Canadian, farming at Poplar Point.

Taylor, H./ A.:

Canadian, farming at Poplar Point.

Wylds, George:

Canadian, farming at Poplar Point.

From Headingly

Baxter, Thos.:

Canadian, farming at Headingly. [Listed in Begg’s Journal, 228, as having been believed, but not confirmed, to have arrested earlier in December 1869.]

Brown, Magnus:

among “new arrivals,” farming at Headingly.

Dennison, Robert:

Canadian, farming at Headingly.

McKay, John:

of Headingly.

Millan/ Milien/ McMillan, Charles:

Métis of Headingly. Had perhaps signed a protest against instituting a provisional government in November 1869 [see “Possible Objectors to a Provisional Government, 29 Nov. 1869,” this site.

Morrison, John Black:

Métis, 16 years old, farming with his parents Angus Morrison (of Scotland) and Anne Cunningham (Métis) at Headingly. Gave an account of his experience at age 75, in which he described the execution of Scott:

“Being a boy and not watched as closely as the grown up prisoners, he had as he says ‘the run of the fort’ and managed to peep through a window and witness the court-martial of Scott. On the day of the execution, he saw Scott led out, having on a death-cap drawn down to his shoulders. He heard Scott’s good-bye through a partly-opened door. He was present when, after the shooting, a guard rushed in, and giving Mr. Morrison and Scott’s other fellow prisoners his gun to examine, shouted, ‘See, see, its loaded! I did not shot him,’ and forthwith began to cry.”

[“Living Local Old-Timer was Fellow Prisoner of Scott” Winnipeg Free Press Evening Bulletin (2 April 1927): 18. See transcript.]

Morrison, N./ Norman:

Métis, born c. 1846, farming at Headingly with wife Charlotte Smith (Métis), brother of John Black Morrison.

Parker, Alexander:

of Headingly.

Salter, W.:

Canadian, farming at Headingly.

Smith, Joseph:

Canadian, farming at Headingly.

Sutherland, W.:

of Headingly.

Taylor, John:

of Headingly. [http://books.google.ca/books?id=nrANAAAAQAAJ&dq=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&pg=PA42#v=onepage&q=a.d.%20lepine%20red%20river&f=false]

From St. James

Ivy, John:

arrested previously on 7 December.

Power/ Powers, ‘Sergeant’ Micheal/ Charles:

Originally from Ireland, a Chelsea Out-Pensioner of the rank of Sergeant/ Sergeant-Major who settled near Sturgeon Creek, St. James, but belonged to the ecclesiatical parish of St. Charles. [See Begg, Begg’s Red River Journal, 111., apparently mistakenly identifies him as ‘Charles’ — all other references either do not supply a given name, or identify him as ‘Micheal.’ Note: In October 1870 a Robert Power was appointed by Canadian Lieutenant Governor Adams George Archibald to the police force.]

From Rivière Sale

Parker, G.:

Canadian, farming at Rivière Sale. This is presumably the previously arrested George Parker who escaped with Woodington on 9 January.

A Final Round of Arrests:

At some point after the above arrests, Louis Schmidt, Undersecretary of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia proclaimed:

“Canadian volunteers are repugnant to every interest and measure of this people, and instead of securing the peace they will, we are confident, destroy the peace which now exists, as well as the hopes of amicable adjustment of the late difficulties…(signed), Louis Schmidt, Assistant Secretary of State, Provisional Government, March 1870.”[1]

Subsequently — particularly after the Legislative of Assembly began its work — the number of political arrests decreased significantly.

[1] Louis Schmidt quoted in Shore, “Canadians and the Métis,” 107, cited as: AM, Schultz Papers, Box 22, Unknown newspaper letter from L. Schmidt undated.]

~~~

Arrested circa 10 March

See “Political Prisoners” New Nation (11 March 1870), http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/03/11/2/Ar00211.xml/Olive?query=grant%2BAND%2Byear%3A1870

polirical prisoners

Grant, John Francis:

Métis, newly arrived at Red River in 1867. Arrested c. 10 March and imprisoned for 7 or 8 days.

Nolin, August/ Augustin:

Métis. Presumably Augustin Nolin Jr., born 1827 to Augustin Nolin Sr. and Helene/ Henriette/ Anne/ ‘Nancy’ Cameron; brother of Charles Nolin. [See http://listsearches.rootsweb.com/th/read/METISGEN/2005-04/1114459638]

Hamlin, Joseph:

Métis. Allegedly had signed a protest against instituting a provisional government in November 1869 [see “Copy of the Document sent to French Representatives, by French People, Red River Settlement, 29 November 1869,” http://iportal.usask.ca/docs/Native_studies_review/v1/issue2/pp97-98.pdf, but see also ” Possible Objectors to a Provisional Government, 29 Nov. 1869,” this site, which comments on the unknown provenance of the document].

McKay, Angus:

Métis, of St. Charles Parish. [His wife performed at a concert celebrating Queen’s birthday and raising funds for support of orphans. See New Nation (20 May 1870), http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/05/20/2/Ar00208.html/Olive; and  New Nation (27 May 1870) http://manitobia.ca/content/en/newspapers/NNT/1870/05/27/2/Ar00204.html/Olive.]

Proclaiming General Amnesty

On the 15 March 1870, during the second day of the first session of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia, President Riel announced that 1/2 of the prisoners would be freed that evening. On 15 April, the New Nation published a proclamation from the Provisional Government that indicated all prisoners had finally been freed — a general amnesty having been granted with the dissolution of any Canadian Party threat (on April 9). Nevertheless, the proclamation warned: “the Government will treat with all severity of the law those who will dare again to compromise the public security. It is ready to act against the disorder of parties as well as that of individuals. But let us hope rather that extreme measures will be unknown, and that the lessons of the past will guide us in the future.”

_______________________________________________________

Published 19 December 2012; updated 12 December 2015; latest update 19 June 2016

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