During 1870 (July – August)


In Assiniboia:

1 July: The New Nation (1 July 1870), is published, and reports: debates of the “Legislative Assembly,” 3d Session; the first District Court held under the  Provisional Government had [Hon.] Andrew G.B. Bannatyne J.P. presiding “with two associate magistrates”; that now is a time for pride, because “Breathes there a man with soul so dead, Who never to himself hath said—This is my own, my native land?”; a denouncing of the “radical press of Ontario”  that reiterates a history of the grievances of people at Red River;  a promise of amnesty from Canada, but that “The Canadian Parliament had no power to pass an amnesty bill, because there was no offence committed when it had any jurisdiction”; an excerpt of “Sketch of the North-West of America By Mgr. Tache, Bishop of St. Boniface,” translated from the French and continued in subsequent issues; that Bishop Tache and Archdeacon McLean have departed for Canada”; on Hon. A. G. Archibald,” and his expected arrival in 5 or 6 weeks, while troops are expected in September; the origin of national emblems such as the rose, thistle, and shamrock; the mauling by lions of Minnie Wells, the ‘Lion Queen.’

8 July: Delegate Hon. Alfred H. Scott returns from Ottawa to the Settlement.

The New Nation (8 July 1870), is published, and includes: “Report of the Delegates“; “The Ontario Journals”; “Indians Gathering”; “Fourth of July Celebrations”; “Building”; “Manufacturing Enterprises”; “The Grasshopper Plague”; “The Local Mails”; “An Old Employee”; “Skirmishing Practice”; “British Columbia and the Canadian Dominion”; “The North-West Question”; “Sport”; a notice of Hon. Alfred H. Scott’s return; “The Globe and the Nor’-West”; “The Canadian Premier’s Illness.”

[Note: the above articles were all printed on page 2 and all are accessible through the link to “Report of the Delegates,” although the final part of the last article runs to page 3, which is not available online.]

In Canada:

15 July: The Province of Manitoba is proclaimed at Ottawa.

In Assiniboia:

15 July: By default, because the only acting government at Red River is the Provisional Government of Assiniboia, it becomes the first provincial government of Manitoba.

16 July: The New Nation (14 and 16 July 1870), is published and includes: “Gov. Mactavish Interviewed at New York” [continued; continued]; “Our Duty as Journalists“; “Governor Mactavish“; “Sir John A. Macdonald“; “Lower Canada Correspondence“; “Sport“; “Trade“; “Cool Impudence“; “A Valuable Reporter“; “A Mistake“; “The Expedition” [additional details]; “The Weather“; “Sudden Death“; “Arrivals“; “Aquatic Sport“; “Hon. Mr. Archibald“; “Manitoba and the Manitoba Act” [continued]; “A Slander Refuted“; “What Has Become of Him?” [continued]; “Red River Furs“; “Northern Pacific Railroad Contract“; and “Good News.”

23 July: The New Nation (23 July 1870), is published, and includes: “A General Amnesty“; “Dominion Flags“; “Strangers in the Gallery [of the House of Commons]“; “A Chinese Temple in the Rocky Mountains“; “Our Farewell to McDougall“; “The Toronto Telegraph’s ‘Own  Correspondent’” which includes “specimens of fabrications” hostile to Red River, such as “The Fenian Flag“; arrivals; “A Flat Denial. ‘Own Correspondent’s’ Fables!” a letter to the editor by Colin Inkster; “Our Conciliatory Tone“; “Hail Storm“; “New Photograph Gallery“; news from Canada; “Cricket Match“; “New Catholic Church at Pembina“; “Chief Justiceship of Manitoba.

30 July: The New Nation (30 July 1870), is published, and includes: a report on the question of the boundary of Manitoba; “Tea by Rail“; “Entering Confederation“; “The Past — The Future” [continued]; “Lake of the Woods Road“; “An Amnesty“; “Burglary“; “St. John’s Collegiate School“; “The Coal Fields of the North-West“; “McDougall’s Expenses“; “War in Europe. War Declared by France Against Prussia!“; the invention of roller skates; “The War between France and Prussia” [continued]; a letter from James Lindsay, Lieutenant-General, Commanding Her Majesty’s Forces in British North America to Bishop Tache; the arrest, in the U.S., of William Brown alias Charles James Thompson, a “bosom friend” of John C. Schultz; a report that “daily work on the sewing machine is not injurious to women“.

6 August: The New Nation (6 August 1870), is published, and includes: a report of the court of the Hudson’s Bay Company [continued]; “Chinese Commissioner’s Tour in England“; “Our Pacific Railway” [continued]; “Indignation” at the “scurrilous personal abuse towards many of our most respectable citizens” in Canadian Journals; “The Governor-General“; “Robbery at St. Paul’s Church“; “Bricks! Bricks!“;  “Canada Repenting Her Folly“; “Charles Dickens’s Will“; “French Jealousy of Prussia” [continued]; “The French Minister“; “Spirit of the English Press“; “The Truth will soon be known” about the Manitoba Bill; “Departure of Prince Arthur.

13 August: The New Nation (13 August 1870), is published, and includes: “Letter from Sir Francis Hincks to the Hon. William McDougall” [continued]; “Recruiting in New York“; “The Great Fire at Constantinople“; “War News Items“; “Military Blundering“; “The story of a Game of Cards played by Bismark, Count Nesserode and a French Consul“; “Death of Governor Mactavish“; “Fort Garry and Pembina Railway” [continued]; “The Lake of the Woods Road“; “Annual Council — Hon. H.B.Co. at Norway House“; “The ‘International‘”; “Our Staple Produce“; “Treaty Between France and Prussia“; “War Nonsense by Telegraph“; “The Troops” of the Red River Expeditionary Force; “The Boundary Line of Manitoba“; “Amnesty“; “Province of Manitoba“; a report on John A. Macdonald’s health; “Archdeacom McLean“; “New Steamboat on Red River” [continued]; “Important to British Emigrants from Red River [to the U.S.]”; “The Late Toronto Splurge“; “Projected Treaty between France and Prussia” [continued]; “Latest Telegraphic News of the War” [continued]; “Regatta Extraordinary” about women rowers in Pittsburgh PA.; “Public Notice” about construction of a railroad from Fort Garry south to the U.S. boundary.

20 August: The New Nation (20 August 1870), is published, and includes: “The Finest Two Thousand Miles Tour in the World” [continued]; “Men’s Favorites” about women [continued]; “Rarity of Men of Business“; “A Dog Saves the Life of His Master and Perishes in the Attempt“; “Mr. McDougall Cornered Again” [additional comment]; “The Press of St. Paul” [continued]; “The Globe, Orangeism and Sir Geo. E. Cartier” [continued]; “Buffalo Robes Infected with Smallpox“; “The Fall of the Empire“; “The Way to Manitoba“; “The Great Seal of Manitoba“; “The European Difficulty,” [continued]; “Felt to be a Serious Business“; “The War News“; “The Mysteries of Editing“; “War in Europe“; “Latest Telegraphic News: The War” [continued; continued].

Colonel Garnet Joseph Wolseley and the Red River Expeditionary Force with the Canadian Volunteers arrive at Red River.

Historian Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan has observed that subsequently,

“The Red River Expeditionary Force did not bring law and order to Manitoba. The Ontario Rifles at Forty Garry became an unruly army of occupation, providing protection for the ‘Canadian’ party and a ‘reign of terror’ for the Métis. This Army of occupation prevented Lieutenant-Governor Archibald from succeeding in his policy of conciliation and from establishing responsible government in Manitoba.”

[Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986).]

23 August: President Louis Riel and members of the first government of Manitoba — the Provisional Government of Assiniboia — vacate Fort Garry.

24 August: The Red River Expeditionary Force moves into Fort Garry. Donald A. Smith assumes governance in the name of old Hudson’s Bay Company Council of Assiniboia — which no longer has any legal authority beyond conducting Company business. The second government of Manitoba is therefore the unrepresentative and powerless HBC Council of Assiniboia.

27 August: The New Nation (27 August 1870), is published, and includes: “Newfoundland” [continued]; “The Suicide of a Queen: Sarah [Cooper], Wife of King Osceola, of the Delaware Indians”; “The Mysteries of Editing“; “How Hydrophobia is Cured out West“; “Death to House Flies“; “Young Men“; an editorial welcoming the troops “hourly expected”, but awaiting “anxiously the arrival of Lieut. Gov. Archibald; “The 60th Rifles“; “The Band of the 60th“; “Col. G.J. Wolseley“; “Tenders of Supplies” for the troops; “Quebec and Ontario Battalions“; “The Lieut. Governor“; a suggestion that citizens prepare an address to welcome the Lieut. Governor; “Arrival of Bishop Tache“; “Personal“; “Arrivals“; “Navigation“; “The War News“; “Notice” for tenders of supplies for troops; “Latest Telegraphic News. The War” [continued]; “War Notes“; “Varieties“; “The Origin of Mosquitoes — A Red River [First Nations] Legend.”



  1. Can someone provide me with the Index Surname listing for Archibald’s 1870 Red River Census please

  2. I don’t know of an index, but you can do a surname search online at http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/census/1870/pages/1870.aspx

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