During 1870 (June)

[under construction]

1870

In Assiniboia:

1 June: a sultry and warm day that in the evening turns to a thunder shower.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: [President]  Louis Riel is undecided on how to act, but is not likely to compromise the country; the former pilot of the steamer International, Larocque, is back from a mission for Riel to St. Paul MN and it took him only 7 1/2 days to make the trip from St. Cloud MN.

2 June: the day is fine and cool.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: Larocque says John C. Schultz is at Duluth MN with 250 Canadian men (though this is not believed): Larocque says Fenians are on the move: the U.S. mail came in, but there is no news of Fenians in the newspapers; the International went out with Murphy and furs; Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché went to White Horse Plains

[Begg, Red River Journal, 377.]

3 June: a cool and pleasant day.

The New Nation (3 June 1870), reports: a quotation from Henry Ward Beecher:

“A newspaper is a window through which men look out on all that is going on in the world—without a newspaper a man is shut up in a small room, and knows little or nothing of what is happening outside of himself. In our day, newspapers keep pace with history and record it. A good newspaper will keep a sensible man in sympathy with the world’s current history. It is an ever unfolding encyclopedia; an unbound book forever issuing and never finished.”

The newspaper also reports: notice of a telegram sent 20 May from Delegate Rev. N.-J. Ritchot; that George Étienne Cartier — during the debate in the Canadian House of Commons on the Manitoba Bill — called for  “amnesty for all”; that the term “rebellion” ought to be rejected in favour of “resistance”; that it important to recognize that 3 lives were lost at the Settlement during the Resistance; on the progress of the Red River Expeditionary Force; on the Red River Cavalry; a letter from Thomas Spence (now editor of the newspaper), to John A. Macdonald disputes the latter’s assertion that Portage la Prairie had a “Governor and Council of Manitoba” that was independent from either the HBC or Red River Settlement; that Major James Wallace [associated with Road Superintendent John A. Snow, and employed by William McDougall as an “undercover agent”] is a liar; that Canada has appointed the “haw-haw” featherweight Captain Donald Roderick Cameron [son-in-law of Charles Tupper, ‘ex-officio’/ temporarily-not-elected member of the Canadian parliament] as  the new Police Chief of the Settlement; that a photograph has been taken of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia members; Lord Henry Stafford Northcote and Lady Northcote are expected to arrive at Red River; John C. Schultz is at Duluth MN; on U.S. railway progress; on arrivals and departures from the Settlement; on grasshoppers.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there is nothing important to report, the settlement is quiet; some of the the plains hunters (who came in as winterers) left to the plains, but some are waiting for [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot, who is expected soon; Henry McKenney has completely closed out his business in the Town of Winnipeg and moved to Pembina, which is to be the headquarters  for U.S. troops at a fort to be built at St. Joseph.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 378.]

 4 June: a pleasant day.

 Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the U.S. mail went out; there is nothing important to report.

 5 June: there is a great storm.

 Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the churches were ill attended; Mrs. John Higgins died after childbirth.

 6 June: the weather is bad.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there was no U.S. mail due to the weather; that John Higgins held a funeral for his wife; Joseph Monkman is at Red River with 200 Swampy Cree to meet the Red River Expeditionary Force (though this has been contradicted); the Catholic nuns are building a small chapel at the Town of Winnipeg; [Hon.] Dr. Curtis James Bird is building a house and stables; [Alexander MacBeth] Sutherland is building a store next to William H. Lyon.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 378.]

In Canada:

6 June: The Toronto Globe reports:

6 June

In Assiniboia:

 7 June: is chilly and unpleasant.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the U.S. mail came in; the Fenians are invading Canada and might stop the Red River Expeditionary Force; [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot is expected soon; [President] Louis Riel ordered the the plains hunters (who came in as winterers) to wait for Ritchot’s arrival before they depart the Settlement.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 378.]

 8 June: the weather is better.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there is nothing important to report; there has been brisk trade lately and more money is in circulation at the Settlement.

 9 June: the weather is fine and pleasant; swallows are building nests under the eaves of buildings at the Town of Winnipeg.

Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché writes to Joseph Howe, Canadian Secretary of State for the Provinces at Ottawa, that he (Taché) has assured the Red River settlers of a complete amnesty having been granted by Canada (and refers to a previous report sent on 28 May 1870). He describes the Provisional Government as a prudent and steadying force in the Settlement. He mentions a rumour that John C. Schultz is on the way to Red River with “a large party of supporters.”

[LAC, John A. Macdonald Correspondence June 09, 1870, MIKAN no. 508901.]

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: [President] Louis Riel went to Oak Point [/Pointe Coupée] a few days ago and was not well received by the Nolins (relatives of Charles Nolin) and their friends, who said they would tie Riel up and kill him; the U.S. mail came in with news of Fenian fighting in Canada, with the Canadians winning; there is no news of [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot, who is said to have left Ottawa on 30 May.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 379.]

10 June: the weather is fine.

The New Nation (10 June 1870), reports: on the Delegates, though there is no definite news, and Rev. N.-J. Ritchot has telegraphed “Strange we get nothing more positive, we await with much anxiety”; an article “Right or Wrong?” reviews  the settlers’ position, the state of land ownership, Ontario’s blundering, and the legal position of Assiniboia; on  Charles Mair’s letter; on Joseph Howe criticizing the Canadian Party at Red River and his observation that there is a history of slandering people who call for responsible government; on the New Lieutenant-Governor for Manitoba; Fenians raided vessels as the Red River Expeditionary Force passed Sault Ste. Marie — they are now at Fort William; the rumour of a secret force of 2500 Canadian troops is debunked; on the President’s photo; on Licences; a notice in French and English about counterfeit money in circulation at the Settlement; on a U.S. railway to Red River; a flood prediction; and horses.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there are many different reports on [President] Louis Riel’s intentions, including that he and his party will declare independence on the 13th; everything is quiet otherwise; the international boundary line is to be placed this side of the Pembina fort; the U.S. ordered [Hon.] Ambroise-Dydime Lépine to be away from the HBC Pembina post.

11 June: a fine and pleasant day.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: everything is quiet at Red River and there is nothing important to report; the U.S. mail went out.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 379.]

12 June: a fine, pleasant day.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there was a murder on the 11th at Whiskey Tom’s, when George [Raymond, the brewer] in charge got in a drunken row with Roderick Cook, then shot Cook in the chest, after which the latter felled George, who shot again but missed; Cook is alive.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 380.]

13 June: is cool and pleasant.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: [President] Louis Riel‘s declaration of independence did not occur; men were sent to arrest George [Raymond] for shooting Roderick Cook; [Hon.] Andrew G.B. Bannatyne and [Hon.] Dr. Curtis James Bird took the deposition of the dying Cook; the U.S. mail came in with no important news except that the Fenians have been beaten; there is no word of the Delegates, Rev. N.-J. Ritchot and [Hon.] Alfred H. Scott; a man named Larsen, who shot another named Johnson, is to be arrested.

 14 June: the warmest day yet. The General Quarterly Court is sitting.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: George [Raymond], the brewer, is in gaol; Roderick Cook, his victim, is improving; Larsen escaped arrest; the Nolins have joined [President] Louis Riel; ‘the French’ are united for peace not war; Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché advised the Nolins to join with the Provisional Government; amnesty for political offenders has been declared; [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot left Ottawa on 31 May and is expected any hour; he is travelling with 2 printers and some others; everything quiet at Red River; the U.S. mail went out.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 380.]

15 June: the weather is warm again.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there is an inquiry into the George [Raymond] vs. Rodrick Cook affair — George got out on bail with help from Tom [Hon. Thomas] Bunn and Dr. John Harrison O’Donnell, while Cook is recovering; Scouts left Upper Fort Garry travelling in all directions; the HBC boats left for Norway Ho. with secretary Joseph James Hargrave and Donald A. Smith, who is to preside over the HBC Northern Council; Smith is purposely avoiding Red River as it is not safe for him there, given the remarks made in his published report; 30 horsemen with wagons went by way of Grosse Isle to Lower Fort Garry — they are likely up to no good

[Begg, Red River Journal, 381.]

16 June: the weather continues warm.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the U.S. mail came in early; there is no news of [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot, though he might be on a boat to the Settlement; the Red River Expeditionary Force had not entirely left Canada for Fort William on 1 June, and will not arrive at the Settlement before August; the Executive Council of the Provisional Government met; George [Raymond] is out on bail; 4 or 5 unknown people arrived and went to see Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché for unknown reasons [forerunners for Ritchot, or Ritchot himself?].

17 June: a warm day, with rain. There is a  21 gun salute at Upper Fort Garry.

Provisional Government of Assiniboia delegate to Ottawa, N.-J. Ritchot, arrives back at Red River.

The New Nation (17 June 1870), reports: Delegate Rev. N.-J. Ritchot arrived on the International; the text of the Manitoba Act; reviews of the foreign Press; a description of events of the Resistance; on Roderick Cook and George Raymond’s preliminary court hearing, and that a date for a trial is set; HBC servants have arrived reporting Blackfoot dissatisfaction; on North-West Missionaries; reviews of Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché’s, book, Sketch of the North-West; about Fenians; that Philip Irwin is still lost; on horse races at the Settlement; on [Hon.] Hugh Francis Olone’s new saloon.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the steamer International  came in with [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot, [Joseph] Dubuc and Champagne (who are settlers), Carpenter of the New York Herald (who will stay to September), [Rev. W.W. Kirby and wife], Fortesque and family (of the HBC), Mrs. Houtman, and Sargent Power’s daughter [also Mssrs. Green and Hoyt, and John McKinney and wife]; arrangements with Canada are satisfactory and a general amnesty has been granted; John C. Schultz was not received well by the Government of Canada; Charles Mair is at St. Cloud MN.

18 June: the day is pleasant and warm.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: there is general satisfaction and little fear of trouble at Red River; [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot says he was well received in Canada by many people of Ontario and Quebec; the U.S. mail went out; a meeting of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government with Ritchot has been called for Tuesday [the 21st].

 19 June:, pleasant. The Feast of Corpus Christi is celebrated at the cathedral in St. Boniface, with a grand procession and attendance by President Louis Riel and members of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: this was a fête day at St. Boniface; everything is quiet; J.E. [Norbert] Gay left Upper Fort Garry.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 382.]

 20 June: there is fine weather.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot‘s mission is complete and successful; the Red River Expeditionary Force is not to leave Fort William until Canada has news that the terms are accepted at Red River; Ritchot secured a general amnesty; [Hon.] Alfred H. Scott is expected to arrive with Henry McKenney.

21 June: a fine day.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the Executive Council of the Provisional Government met, but [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot was too ill to attend; matters have been satisfactorily arranged; Robert Tait has been appointed as Sheriff, which is not generally liked [by Canadians].

22 June: the weather is “exceeding warm,” and there is a severe thunder storm. The mosquitoes are very bad.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: freighters will lose animals to mosquitoes; there were notices sent to Legislative Assembly members to meet tomorrow; the plains hunters (who came in as winterers) have gone out; there are plains hunters arriving from the Saskatchewan, but they have not done well (which was expected); William H. Lyon is building a warehouse behind his store; George Emmerling is preparing to build.

[Begg, Red River Journal, 383.]

In England:

22 June: The Crown accepts the deed “under the seal of the HBC bearing the date 19 November 1869,” which surrendered the territory of Rupert’s Land to Queen Victoria.

In Assiniboia:

23 June: The Third Session, Day 1, of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia opens to consider the report of the delegation to Ottawa on the negotiations with Canada, but adjourns until the next day because Delegate Rev. N.-J. Ritchot is too ill to attend.

[ see, “Message exchange: Thomas Bunn and J.N. Ritchot, 23 June 1870,” this site.]

The day is warm.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the meeting of the Legislative Assembly was cancelled; [President] Louis Riel is absent with returned [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot; the U.S. mail came in; there is no important news; Canadians with families were stopped at Pembina by [President] Riel’s guard; the Canadians are remaining at Pembina,  “having come from Abercrombie in a flat boat.”

In England:

23 June: the transfer of Rupert’s Land is completed.

In Assiniboia:

24 June: The Third Session, Day 2, of the Legislative Assembly of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia ratifies the Manitoba Act, then adjourns.

The weather is warm and sultry, with the mosquitoes very bad, especially at night.

The New Nation (24 June 1870), reports: “IMPORTANT. Brief Report of Our Delegates to Canada”; the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia, Session 3; the text of the Manitoba Act; on the New Lieutenant-Governor; the progress of the Red River Expeditionary Force; Robert Tait‘s appointment as Sheriff in the place of Henry McKenney; on Fenians; on U.S. railroad progress; an excerpt of Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché, Sketch of North-West; [perhaps Louis Riel or Louis Schmidt‘s?] criticism of the Canadian Party, misrepresentations of Red River, assertion that the trouble arose solely on account of a few men, insistence that from outset Red River people considered themselves to be British subjects; the Feast of Corpus Christi; a child was killed by lightning; departures; the death of renowned author Charles Dickens.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the legislative assembly met and heard [Delegate] Rev. N.-J. Ritchot‘s report, which was very favourable and the terms for confederation were accepted; the legislative assembly will send a special messenger tomorrow with a letter inviting the new appointed Lieutenant-Governor Adams G. Archibald to come in immediately — they want him present before the Red River Expeditionary Force arrives, so that they are seen not to have entered confederation “at the point of a bayonet”; apparently amnesty was granted by promise of Sir [Thomas William] Clinton Murdoch and Sir John Young, “special Crown commissioners  to our delegates”; the Red River Expeditionary Force is not to leave Fort William until they receive news from Provisional Government on whether the terms have been accepted or not; Emgland and Canada “fully recognized the Provisional Government as that of the country,” and the 24th of June “is therefore a turning point in affairs of the Settlement”; some of the legislative assembly members got drunk afterwards at Emmerling’s Hotel in honour of occasion; Roderick Cook is recovering and George [Raymond] is at large; “English-speaking settlers” are angry that ‘the French’ got all the concessions while ‘the English’ get “nothing” — “Schemers are still at work.”

[Begg, Red River Journal, 384.]

25 June: a warm day.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: the Executive Council of the Provisional Government met and composed a formal reply to Canada, accepting the terms for confederation; a mail carrier was ordered to Upper Fort Garry to take the letter to Canada; a special messenger was sent out with an invitation to Lieutenant-Governor Adams G. Archibald to assume his position before the Red River Expeditionary Force arrives.

26 June: a warm day.

Canadian rumours circulate, alleging: Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché is off to Canada.

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Responses

  1. Who is Larocque mentioned in this article? Charles?

    • According to W.L. Morton’s footnotes, this would be Thomas ‘Tom’ Larocque, the pilot of the river steamer International.


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