Chronology: After the Resistance, 1870

In Assiniboia:

2 September: Manitoba’s first Lieutenant-Governor, Adams George Archibald, arrives by canoe at Upper Fort Garry. He was not met by a Red River Expeditionary Force welcoming party. He takes his office upon the resignation of quasi-governorship by Donald A. Smith. Archibald, as Lieutenant-Governor will subsequently act as his own premier of the province.

The New Nation refuses to publish John C. Schultz‘s father-in-law James Farquharson‘s posting of reward of £20 each for the capture of Louis Riel, Ambroise-Dydime Lépine, and William Bernard O’Donoghue (former President, the Hon. Adjutant General, and Hon. Treasurer of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia respectively) in the New Nation.

[Neil Edgar Allen Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” Ph.D. diss. (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 1986), 382, 414.]

3 September: The New Nation (3 September 1870), is published, and includes: “The Dominion Flags“; “The British Orders of Knighthood“; “How the French Zouaves do their Fighting” [continued]; “Terrific Thunderstorms“; “A Happy Editor“; a note on Newfoundland; “The War News“; a note on the Hamilton Total Abstinence Society; a notice that the Lieutenant-Governor will hold a levee at Upper Fort Garry on 6 September; “Arrival of His Excellency Lieut.-Gov. Archibald” the previous evening; “The Ontario Battalion” [continued]; “The British Pacific Railway” [continued]; “Mr. Simon Dawson, C.E.“; “Narrow Escape” about the attack on Rev. Kavanagh of White Horse Plains; “The Band“; “The Military Chaplains“; “Col. Wolseley and the 60th“; “The Quebec Battalion“; “Departure of the Regulars“; announcement that “the Gentlemen who constituted the Council of Assiniboia are requested to meet at the Hudson’s Bay House. Fort Garry, on Tuesday the 6th”; “An Absurd Rumour“; “Lake of the Woods Road“; “New Water Route to Lake of the Woods“; “The International“; “The Assiniboine Bridge“; “Business“; “An Unpleasant Interview“; comment on Napoleon; mentions from Canada; “Latest Telegraphic News. The War“; “Another Decisive Prussian Victory” [continued]; “Talk of Peace and its Terms” [continued]; “The Princess Victoria Making Preparations to Care for the Wounded“; “Woman Stabbed“; various notes.

5 September: Canadians hold a meeting and draft a petition to Lieutenant-Governor Adams George Archibald demanding that the remains of  Thomas Scott be handed over for “Christian burial.”

[Ronaghan,”The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 357.]

6 September: Lieutenant-Governor Adams George Archibald holds his levée. Canadians are outraged at the presence of Thomas Bunn — formerly an honourable member of the Legislative Assembly and Secretary of State of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia — at the affair. The Canadians protest by posting placards that threaten Bunn with tarring and feathering and with hanging.

[Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,”382.]

Editor  Thomas Spence is assaulted by John C. Schultz and three other men, who shut down the New Nation press.

[See “Aftermath: The ‘Reign of Terror’,” this site.]

13 September: Canadian attacks on Red River settlers escalate with the stoning death of Elzéar Goulet.

[See “Aftermath: The ‘Reign of Terror’,” this site.]

The Manitoba News-Letter (13 September 1870), is published by John C. Schultz. The issue includes: “Lieut.-Governor Archibald’s Levee” [continued]; “Col. Wolsely’s [sic] Valedictory” [continued]; a note on churchmen.

[The newspaper is brief, although there is more than shown here, but it is illegible online.]

16 September: Lieutenant-Governor Adams George Archibald appoints himself as acting in the place of a premier of the province of Manitoba. Alfred Boyd is appointed provincial secretary and Marc-Amable Girard as provincial treasurer. Manitoba had become a ‘province,’ but it was one unlike any of the others in the Dominion.

17 September: Lieutenant-Governor Adams George Archibal, issues his proclamation of governance.

In Canada:

22 September: Canadian Rev. George Young‘s account of the “murder” of Thomas Scott is published by the Toronto Daily Telegraph (it will be available at Red River by about 10 October).

[Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 356.]

In Assiniboia:

3 October: The “Memorial and Petition of the People of Rupert’s Land and the North-West Territory, British America, to His Excellency U. S. Grant, President of the United States” is drafted “by authority of the people” at a meeting held ‘near St. Norbert.’ The memorialists recount the course of the Resistance, and protest that while amnesty had been promised it has not been declared, rendering “null and void” the confederation agreement. The Red River Expeditionary Force has violated its pledge of peace, instead pursuing “warlike purposes” — causing Riel, Lepine and O’Donoghue to “flee for safety to the U.S.” along with “all the American citizens in the town of Winnipeg … leaving in most instances their property behind.”

“And we, the memorialists, for and in behalf of ourselves, and the people whom we represent, acting upon the highest principles of civil and religious liberty, in asserting the great and sacred principle of self-government, recognized throughout the civilized world as an inalienable right, have been, for these things, coerced into a confederation with Canada, under false representations, broken promises, and violated pledges.”

And, having been “left alone” without a means of obtaining redress, they appeal to the U.S. “to see us righted” by conducting an investigation “into the extent and nature of our grievances” over the “violated pledges, and the injury and damages resulting.”

8 October: John C. Schultz‘s Manitoba News-Letter (8 October 1870), launches a personal attack against former president of the Provisional Government of Assiniboia, Louis Riel, with “Confessions of Louis Riel,” and an additional note. Other members of the former government are also mentioned. William Bernard O’Donoghue is given special mention in connection with being shot at six times. Schultz makes particular use of Thomas Scott’s death to forward his agenda. He describes his paper as necessary, given “the deficiency now so seriously felt in the absence of a regular paper here,” without mentioning the role he played in bringing about that absence.

10 October: Lieutenant Governor Adams George Archibald appoints John C. Schultz (whose claim to be a medical doctor does not rest on actual certification), to the Board of Health.

[See The Manitoban (15 October 1870), list of appointments dated 10 October 1870.]

Archibald appoints to a police force 19 newly arrived Canadians (at least one of whom had been imprisoned by the Provisional Government for acting in William McDougall and John Stoughton Dennis‘ illegal, invading, and violent Canadian Volunteer Militia).

[See The Manitoban (15 October 1870), list of appointments dated 10 October 1870. The former prisoner was George Nicol.]

c. October: 32 families leave Red River under the leadership of Père Moulin to St. Pierre Mission at Reindeer Lake.

[Ronaghan, “The Archibald Administration in Manitoba — 1870 – 1872,” 339.]

13 October: the Archibald Census is designed. Thomas Scott’s coffin is disinterred.

[See “Red River Censuses,” this site. See also 15 October below.]

15 October:  William Coldwell and Robert Cunningham publish the Manitoban [and Northwest Herald] (15 October 1870).The issue includes: a list of districts for census taking along with a list of the enumerators for each district; an article, “The Late Thomas Scott, Unsuccessful Search for His Remains,” about the disinterment of Scott‘s coffin at Upper Fort Garry on Thursday (13 October 1870). Rev. George Young, who regarded the Provisional Government of Assiniboia as an “abominable confederacy,” had been granted permission to disinter the body. Lieutenant Gov. Adams George Archibald, was present, as were former Canadian Party agitators, ‘Dr.’ John C. Schultz,  Dr. James Spencer Lynch, and Rev. Fletcher.

[See also George Young, Manitoba Memories: leaves from my life in the prairie province, 1868-1884 (Toronto William Briggs, 1897), 151 – 152, who adds extra details, about a rope, to his ‘transcription’ of the article.]

22 October: The Manitoban and North-West Herald (22 October 1870), is published and includes: “The Elections” cautioning voters against ‘dodges’ that might be perpetrated; “Instructions to be observed by the Enumerators” for the census, which defines “A Half-breed” as “any person descended, however remotely, either by father or mother, from any ancestor belonging to any one of the native tribes of Indians, and also descended, however remotely, from an ancestor among the Whites — in other words. having in his veins both White and Indian blood” and notes that “Indians living in tents, or wandering from place to place without a settled home” are not to be included in the census.

29 October: The Manitoban and North-West Herald (29 October 1870), is published and includes: “The Mounted Constabulary Force” which notes it has been difficult to obtain horses for the police and that 12 members of the 2d Battalion [of Canadian Volunteers] joined and that the force is not to disturb the peace “or in any way” annoy the inhabitants of the province; “Election Matters.

5 November: The Manitoban and North-West Herald (5 November 1870), is published and includes: “The Elections. Opening the Political Campaign” [continued, continued, continued, continued].

12 November: The Manitoban and North-West Herald (12 November 1870), is published and includes: “The Elections. Meeting in Kildonan,” [continued, continued, continued, continued]; “Mob Law” that comments on the “hectoring bully” Schultz and his “clique of irresponsible, and consequently reckless, demagogues,” who are calling for violence to be directed at individuals through Schultz’s Manitoba News-Letter [continued].

17 November: A Supplement to the Manitoban (17 November 1870) is published, and includes: “The Elections”; “To the Electors of Manitoba[continued, French-language version]; “Politics in Manitoba” which observes “Responsible Government is an experiment in this Province” and explains the difference between patriarchal and representative government while describing the workings of the latter system, but does not mention the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia [continued].

27 December 1870: the first general election in the Province of Manitoba. Of the 28 members of the former Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia, only 9 run again, 6 of whom are re-elected.

Those who won in their bid to rerun are: Edward Henry George Gunter Hay for St. Andrew’s South; Louis Schmidt for St. Boniface West; Thomas Bunn for St. Clements; Pierre Delorme for St. Norbert South; Dr. Curtis James Bird for St. Paul’s; and André Beauchemin for St. Vital.

Those who lost are: George Gunn at Poplar Point; William Garrioch at Portage la Prairie; and Thomas Sinclair at St. Andrew’s South.

30 December: the Canadian Volunteers of the RREF riot, dissatisfied with the election results.


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